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Common Diseases in Children – A Guide for Parents!

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Common Diseases in Children
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Childhood is a time so beautiful and energetic. Yet it is often most vulnerable for little souls as common diseases in children can easily wear them down.

That’s because children have an immune system still in developing mode, are not as strong as adults, and are susceptible to foreign invaders. 

If you are concerned about your children’s health and want to know about common diseases in children, you are in the right spot. This article will discuss childhood diseases and disorders, common childhood illnesses and symptoms, and how to manage them at home. 

Don’t worry! Just keep on reading. 

Common Diseases in Children List – Everything a Parent Should Know!

What is considered the most common illness in preschool children? Common cold, measles, chickenpox, and other common childhood illnesses top the children’s disease list you should know as a parent. 

Here we will discuss these common childhood illnesses and tips to manage them at home. 

Common Cold

The common cold is a viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract. It is one of the common childhood illnesses that can affect children of any age. 

According to Dr. Nida Badar, a renowned Pediatrician with seven years of experience, children are more susceptible to catching a cold due to their immature immune systems. They also get sick due to frequent exposure to other sick children. 

You will know if your child is sneezing, has a runny or stuffy nose, coughing, sore throat, and has a fever

How to Manage Common Cold at Home?

Here are some tips on how parents can treat their child’s common cold at home:

  • Rest: Ensure your child gets plenty of rest. It will help them recover faster.
  • Hydration: Encourage your child to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and help loosen mucus.
  • Saline nasal drops: Saline nasal drops can help relieve nasal congestion and help your child breathe more easily.
  • Steam: Steam can help loosen mucus and relieve congestion. You can prepare a hot bath and sit with your child in the bathroom or use a humidifier.
  • Honey: Honey can help soothe a sore throat and relieve coughing in children over the age of one year.
  • Over-the-counter medications: Over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help relieve fever and other symptoms. 
  • Avoid exposure to secondhand smoke: Secondhand smoke can irritate the respiratory system and worsen symptoms.

Stomach Flu

Stomach flu, known as gastroenteritis, is a common childhood illness caused by a viral or bacterial infection in the digestive system. It can lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and fatigue.

How to Manage Stomach Flu at Home?

  • Take Care of Hydration: Keep your child hydrated by giving them fluids like water, broths, or an oral rehydration solution. Offer small, frequent sips instead of large amounts of fluids at once. Avoid sugary drinks or fruit juices as they can worsen diarrhea.
  • Give them Soft Food: You can give your child bland, easy-to-digest foods such as toast, crackers, rice, bananas, and boiled potatoes. Avoid giving your child spicy, greasy, or fatty foods, as they can irritate the stomach and worsen symptoms. Learn more about your child’s nutritional needs
  • Ensure Lots of Rest: Make sure your child gets plenty of rest and avoid exposing them to others who may be sick. Encourage them to wash their hands frequently to prevent the spread of infection.
  • Medications for Fever: If your child has a fever or severe symptoms, the pediatrician can recommend over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen to reduce fever and alleviate discomfort.

Pediatric experts at Sugimed Hospital say that stomach flu can lead to dehydration, which can be dangerous, especially in young children. Signs of dehydration include dry mouth, decreased urine output, dark yellow urine, and lethargy


Chickenpox is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Although it is one of the common diseases in children, adults can also catch it. 

The symptoms of chickenpox include a rash that turns into itchy, fluid-filled blisters, fever, headache, and body aches. 

Chickenpox can spread through direct contact with the fluid from the blisters, coughing, and sneezing.

How to Manage Chickenpox at Home?

If your child has chickenpox, there are several things you can do to help manage their symptoms at home:

  • Keep your child hydrated: Encourage your child to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. Water, fruit juices, and herbal teas are good choices.
  • Control the fever: Use over-the-counter fever reducers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Do not use aspirin, as it can cause a severe condition called Reye’s syndrome.
  • Soothe the itch: Use calamine lotion or a cool compress to soothe the itching. Avoid creams or ointments that can trap the virus and delay healing.
  • Keep your child comfortable: Dress your child in loose, comfortable clothing and stay in a cool, quiet room.
  • Prevent the spread of the virus: Keep your child away from others who have not had chickenpox or the vaccine. Ensure they cover their mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing and wash their hands frequently.

Most cases of chickenpox in children are mild and go away on their own within a few days to a week. 

Ear Pain

Many factors can cause ear pain in children, including infections, allergies, injury, or foreign objects in the ear. It is essential to identify the cause of the pain before starting any treatment.

How to Take Care of Your Child’s Ear Pain?

If a child is experiencing ear pain, parents can manage it at home with the following measures:

  • Pain relief: Over-the-counter pain medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen can alleviate the pain. 
  • Warm compress: Placing a warm compress on the affected ear can ease the pain. A warm, damp cloth can be heated in the microwave for a few seconds and applied to the ear.
  • Rest and sleep: Ensure your child gets plenty of rest and sleep. It can help the body fight off infections and promote healing.
  • Keep the ears dry: If the pain is due to an infection, keep the ears dry and covered during a shower.

It is essential to remember that home remedies are not a substitute for medical treatment. If your child’s ear pain is severe or persistent, consult a pediatrician or an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist for further evaluation and treatment.

Eczema (Skin Disorder)

Eczema is a chronic skin condition that causes dry, itchy, and inflamed skin. It’s a common childhood illness, and symptoms often start in infancy. Eczema occurs due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It gets triggered by many things, including allergens, irritants, and stress.

How Can Parents Manage Eczema at Home?

Here are some tips on how parents can manage eczema at home:

  • Keep your child’s skin moisturized: Apply a gentle, fragrance-free moisturizer to your child’s skin several times a day. It can help keep the skin hydrated and reduce itching.
  • Avoid irritants: Avoid exposing your child’s skin to irritants like soaps, detergents, and other chemicals that can dry out the skin or cause a reaction.
  • Use mild, fragrance-free products: Use fragrance-free products for your child’s skin and clothing. It can help reduce the risk of irritation or allergic reactions.
  • Bathe your child in lukewarm water: Use lukewarm water for your child’s baths, and avoid hot water, which can dry out the skin. Keep baths short and gentle, and avoid scrubbing the skin.
  • Dress your child in loose, comfortable clothing: Dress your child in loose, comfortable clothing made from soft, breathable fabrics like cotton. Avoid clothing made from wool or other scratchy materials.


Measles is a highly contagious viral infection that affects the respiratory system. The virus spreads through contact with infected respiratory secretions, such as droplets from coughing and sneezing.

The symptoms include fever, cough, runny nose, red, watery eyes, and a characteristic rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. 

Can Parents Manage Their Child’s Measles at Home?

If your child gets measles, follow the advice of their pediatrician and take steps to manage the symptoms and prevent the spread of the virus to others. 

  • Provide plenty of fluids: Encourage your child to drink lots of liquids, such as water, juice, and soup, to prevent dehydration and help soothe a sore throat.
  • Give fever-reducing medication: If your child has a fever, you can give them acetaminophen or ibuprofen to reduce it. 
  • Use a cool mist humidifier: A cool mist humidifier can help relieve cough and congestion by adding moisture to the air.
  • Keep your child isolated: Measles is highly contagious, so keep your child away from others to prevent the spread of the virus. Keep them at home until they are no longer contagious, which is usually about four days after the onset of the rash.
  • Practice good hygiene: Make sure to wash your hands frequently and thoroughly, and encourage your child to do the same. Cover their mouth and nose when they cough or sneeze, and dispose of tissues properly.

Learn more about how to manage high fever in children

Final Thoughts on Common Diseases in Children!

Your child will be exposed to a virus at some point, whether on the playground or in the classroom. One of the most important things you can do is to take your child to a well-known pediatrician regularly. This way, you can monitor their health and ensure they are up-to-date on all vaccinations.

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