Anemia

Overview of Anemia

Anemia Meaning in Urdu

انیمیا ایک خون کی بیماری ہے جس کی وجہ سے جسم میں خون کے صحت مند خلیات کی کمی واقع ہو جاتی ہے اور جسم میں موجود سیلز کے درمیان آکسیجن کی سپلائی متاثر ہوتی ہے۔ انیمیا کو ہیمو گلوبن کی کمی بھی کہا جاتا ہے۔ خون کی کمی کئی وجوہات ہو سکتی ہیں جن میں سب سے بنیادی وجہ غیر متوازن غذا کا استعمال شامل ہے۔ صحت مند اور متوازن غذائیں استعمال نہ کرنے کی وجہ سے جسم میں خون کے سرخ خلیات کی افزائش نہیں ہوتی جس کی وجہ سے یہ بیماری لاحق ہوتی ہے۔

Anemia (خون کی کمی) refers to the deficiency of red blood cells, also reported as low hemoglobin or hematocrit. These red cells carry oxygen to other body tissues.

Different causes of Anemia lead to its many forms. It ranges from mild to severe. The most common type is iron-deficiency Anemia. The treatment of anemia depends on the cause and varies from supplements to medical procedures.

Anemia Prevalence

According to a recent survey, Anemia affects 41.7% to 77.0% of WRA (women of reproductive age) in Pakistan. It is prevalent in rural sides of Pakistan. Studies reveal that it is associated with other adverse health consequences, like low birth weight, and preterm delivery.

Signs and Symptoms of Anemia

The symptoms of Anemia range from mild to severe. Symptoms often develop when there are fewer red blood cells in your body. The causes of the Anemia may bring the following symptoms:

  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Headache
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tiredness or weakness
  • Dizziness that makes the patient feel to past out
  • Having pain in the chest, belly, joints, and bones
  • Pale or yellow skin
  • Growth or development problems in children or teens

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Types of Anemia

Anemia is a condition that can be present at birth. It can also develop when there are no red blood cells in the blood. The following reasons can also result in Anemia:

  • When the body does not produce enough red blood cells
  • The body starts to destroy red blood cells
  • Bleeding leads to more red blood cells as compared to their replacement.
  • The body needs some essential nutrients to produce red blood cells, such as iron, folate, vitamin B-12, etc. that a body consumes from foods.

There are multiple factors that cause Anemia, such as:

Iron Deficiency Anemia

One of the most common types of Anemia is iron-deficiency Anemia which occurs due to less iron in your body. Iron plays an important role as bone marrows require iron to make hemoglobin. When there is a shortage of iron, the body is unable to produce enough hemoglobin for red blood cells.

It occurs mostly in pregnant women. Excessive blood loss can also cause iron deficiency, such as stomach ulcers, large bowel cancer, regular intake of painkillers, etc. Some medications also cause inflammation in the stomach lining that results in blood loss. It is crucial to diagnose the leading cause of iron deficiency in your body that helps to treat Anemia.

Here are some common iron-deficiency causes:

  • Donating blood more often
  • Periods
  • Intake of certain drugs
  • Breastfeeding
  • Intake of caffeinated drinks
  • Poor nutrition

Vitamin Deficiency Anemia

There are some other nutrients that a body requires to make red blood cells, like folate and vitamin B-12. Poor nutrition may lead to a deficiency of these essential nutrients that a body requires. Not enough consumption of B-12 makes it impossible to absorb the vitamin that leads to pernicious Anemia, also known as vitamin deficiency Anemia.

Sickle Cell Anemia

The normal shape of the red blood cells is the round-shaped that becomes crescent-shaped. The red blood cell shape changes when there is some problem in the genes. These crescent-shaped red blood cells are stuck in tiny blood vessels.

When red blood cells break easily, Anemia occurs.

Chronic Conditions

Some health conditions lead to not enough hormones in the body that make red blood cells. Some of the common conditions that cause Anemia include old age, long-term diseases like cancer, infection, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, advanced kidney disease, etc.

Aplastic Anemia

Soft and fatty tissues inside your bones are the marrow where the new blood cells form. It is life-threatening Anemia. The causes of aplastic Anemia include certain medicines, toxic chemical exposure, and autoimmune disease.

Hemolytic Anemia

Your body destroys the red blood cells faster than your bone marrow can replace them, which results in hemolytic Anemia. Red blood destruction occurs due to certain blood diseases, and it can also inherit or may develop later.

Anemia Associated with Bone Marrow Disease

Some diseases like myelofibrosis and leukemia affect the production of red blood cells in your bone marrow that leads to Anemia. It may vary from mild to severe cases.

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Risk Factors of Anemia

Some factors can put you at high risk of Anemia, such as:

  • Being pregnant and avoiding the intake of supplements can lead to Anemia risk.
  • Women who have not had menopause yet, are at risk of iron deficiency Anemia as compared to postmenopausal women.
  • Genetics also increases the risk of Anemia. Sickle cell anemia can be inherited or a person may develop it later in life.
  • The intestinal disorder can affect the process of nutrient absorption in the small intestine. These disorders include celiac disease and Crohn’s disease.
  • Infections or blood diseases also increase the risk of Anemia.
  • Overage 65 men and women may also develop Anemia.
  • Poor nutrition that does not provide essential nutrients to your body can also increase the risk of Anemia.

Complications of Anemia

Delay in getting treatment can lead to other health complications, such as:

Heart Issues: Red blood deficiency can lead to an irregular heartbeat. Being anemic means more blood pumps to fulfill the oxygen in the blood. Heart failure is possible if it is left untreated.

Death: Some types of Anemia inherit, including sickle cell anemia which leads to life-threatening conditions.

Tiredness: Red blood Deficiency can make you experience extreme tiredness that can affect daily tasks.

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Prevention

It is impossible to prevent some specific types of Anemia. But a healthy diet plan and vitamin intake can help to prevent iron-deficiency Anemia. The following minerals and vitamins can help:

  • Consume vitamin C-rich fruits and extracts to improve iron absorption.
  • Vitamin B-12 rich foods prevent the iron-deficiency in the blood.
  • Meats, beans, and iron-fortified cereals can fulfill the iron deficiency.
  • Leafy green veggies and fruits can help to provide enough folate to your body.
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Diagnosis

A medical and family history is required to diagnose the Anemia. A physical exam and some tests can help to diagnose the less production of red blood cells. This test includes:

Complete Blood Count (CBC): CBC test reveals the count of blood cells number in the sample blood. The levels of red blood cells and hemoglobin in your blood are checked.

Some red blood cells are also used to learn the size and shape. It helps to check some specific types of Anemia.

The doctor may ask for some additional diagnostic test if there is a diagnosis found in your test.

Treatment of Anemia | When to Consult a Doctor

The treatment depends on the cause of the Anemia.

Iron Deficiency Anemia: Doctors recommend a healthy diet and iron supplements to receive enough iron.

Vitamin Deficiency Anemia: Some dietary supplements can help to provide essential nutrients, like folic acid and vitamin C. Vitamin B-12 shots are also used but depends on your condition.

Hemolytic Anemias: Some medications avoidance and infection treatment prevent the attack on red blood cells. Ongoing treatment is recommended for a severe condition.

Sickle Cell Anemia: Oral intravenous fluids, pain relievers, and oxygen supply can prevent health complications. Some supplements can also work to prevent its progress.

Bone Marrow Associated Anemias: Chemotherapy and medicines can help to deal with such types of Anemia.

Thalassemia: It may not require any treatment for most of its forms but blood transfusions and other supplements can help to treat severe conditions.

Aplastic Anemia: Blood transfusion is used to boost the red blood cells or need a bone marrow transplant.

Anemia Medication

Anemia treatment may include pain relievers and oral and intravenous fluids. Doctors may also suggest oxygen to prevent complications. Blood transfusions, antibiotics, and folic acid supplements can also be recommended for Anemia treatment.

Diet

The deficiency of nutrients may be the reason for Anemia, but iron-rich foods can deal with essential nutrition value.

  • Iron-rich foods include:
  • Fish
  • Iron-fortified cereals and bread
  • Tofu
  • Eggs
  • Brown rice
  • Eggs
  • Leafy green vegetables
  • White and red meats
  • Dried fruits

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Last updated on Friday 21/10/2022

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