Aortic Stenosis

Overview of Aortic Stenosis

Aortic Stenosis Meaning in Urdu

دل کے ساتھ خون کی ایک بڑی شریان منسلک ہوتی ہے جس میں دل خون کو پمپ کرتا ہے، پھر یہ شریان جسم کے دوسرے حصوں کو خون پہنچاتی ہے۔ اس بیماری کی وجہ سے خون کی بڑی شریان میں رکاوٹ پیدا ہو جاتی ہے اور اس میں خون کی روانی متاثر ہوتی ہے۔ جب جسم میں خون کی روانی متاثر ہوتی ہے تو سینے کے درد، دل کی تیز دھڑکن، سانس لینے میں مشکل، پاؤں یا ٹخںوں کی سوزش، اور سونے یا چلنے میں مشکلات کا سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے۔ یہ علامات اس وقت شدت اختیار کریں گی جب خون کی روانی بہت کم ہو جائے گی۔


Aortic stenosis is a heart condition in which the aortic valve narrows, obstructing blood flow from the heart's left ventricle to the aorta and the rest of the body. The aortic valve is responsible for regulating blood flow out of the heart and into the body's circulation. When it becomes narrowed or stiff, the heart has to work harder to pump blood through the valve, which can lead to various complications.

Prevalence of Aortic Stenosis:

Globally, Aortic Stenosis is the most prevalent heart disease in developed nations. It is the most common type of heart disease in the elderly. The prevalence of severe aortic stenosis in adults over 75 years old is 3%. A moderate to severe valvular heart disease affects more than one in eight adults over 75.

Signs and Symptoms of Aortic Stenosis

Some common Aortic Stenosis symptoms include:

  • Chest pain or Tightness: People with aortic stenosis may experience chest pain or tightness, especially during physical activity.
  • Shortness of Breath: As the condition progresses, people may experience shortness of breath, especially during physical activity or when lying down.
  • Fatigue: People with aortic stenosis may feel tired or weak, even after enough rest.
  • Heart Palpitations: Some people with aortic stenosis may experience heart palpitations or a rapid, irregular heartbeat.
  • Fainting: In severe cases of aortic stenosis, people may faint or feel lightheaded, especially during physical activity.

It is important to note that some people with aortic stenosis may not experience any symptoms, especially in the early stages of the condition. However, even without symptoms, aortic stenosis can still be a serious condition that requires medical attention. 


Types of Aortic Stenosis

There are two main types of aortic stenosis based on the cause of the condition:

  1. Congenital Aortic Stenosis: This type of aortic stenosis occurs due to a congenital heart defect, which means the valve did not develop properly before birth. It can be classified into four subtypes based on the location of the narrowing in the valve: valvular, supravalvular, subvalvular, and mixed.
  2. Acquired Aortic Stenosis: This type of aortic stenosis is acquired later in life, usually due to age-related degeneration or other medical conditions. It occurs because of various factors, such as calcium deposits on the valve, rheumatic fever, or radiation therapy to the chest.

Acquired aortic stenosis is much more common than congenital aortic stenosis. However, the treatment for both types of aortic stenosis is similar and depends on the severity of the condition and the individual's overall health status.

Causes of Aortic Stenosis

The most common Aortic Stenosis causes include:

  • Age: As people age, the aortic valve can become calcified and stiff, which can cause narrowing and stenosis.
  • Congenital Heart Defects: Some babies are born with aortic valve abnormalities that can cause stenosis.
  • Rheumatic Fever: Rheumatic fever is a complication of untreated strep throat that can damage the heart valves, including the aortic valve.
  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve: A bicuspid aortic valve is a congenital abnormality where the valve has two cusps instead of three, which can lead to stenosis.
  • Calcification: Calcium deposits can accumulate on the aortic valve over time, leading to stenosis.
  • Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy for cancer treatment can damage the heart valves, including the aortic valve, and cause stenosis.
  • Medications: Some medications, such as ergotamine, can cause aortic stenosis as a rare side effect.

It is important to note that Aortic Stenosis causes are unknown in most cases. It can occur without any underlying cause.


Risk Factors of Aortic Stenosis

There are several Aortic Stenosis risk factors, including:

  • Age: Aortic stenosis is most common in individuals over 65.
  • Genetics: Certain genetic mutations can increase the risk of developing aortic stenosis.
  • Congenital heart defects: Individuals born with certain heart defects may be at increased risk for developing aortic stenosis later in life.
  • Rheumatic fever: This is a rare complication of strep throat that can cause damage to the heart valves, including the aortic valve.
  • High blood pressure: High blood pressure can lead to the development of aortic stenosis over time.
  • High cholesterol: High levels of cholesterol in the blood can contribute to the development of aortic stenosis.
  • Smoking: Smoking is a major risk factor for aortic stenosis, as it can damage the blood vessels and increase the risk of developing plaques that can narrow the aortic valve.
  • Diabetes: Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for developing aortic stenosis.

If you have concerns about your risk of developing aortic stenosis, talk to your healthcare provider. They can provide personalized information about your risk and help you reduce the risk if necessary.

Aortic Stenosis Complications:

When the aortic valve, controlling the blood flow from the heart's left ventricle to the rest of the body, becomes narrowed or blocked, it can lead to various Aortic Stenosis complications, including:

  • Chest Pain (Angina): Aortic stenosis can cause chest pain. It occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body's demands.
  • Heart Failure: As the aortic valve becomes narrower, the heart has to work harder to pump blood. It can eventually weaken the heart muscle and lead to heart failure.
  • Arrhythmia: Aortic stenosis can cause an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) due to the strain on the heart.
  • Stroke: Aortic stenosis can increase the risk of blood clots forming in the heart, which can travel to the brain and cause a stroke.
  • Endocarditis: Aortic stenosis increases the risk of bacterial infections of the heart's inner lining (endocarditis).
  • Sudden Cardiac Death: In severe cases of aortic stenosis, sudden cardiac death can occur due to the heart's inability to pump enough blood to the body.

It's essential to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of aortic Stenosis, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or dizziness. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.



While there is no guaranteed way to prevent Aortic Stenosis, there are lifestyle choices and medical interventions that can reduce your risk of developing this condition. Here are some tips for Aortic Stenosis prevention:

  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle: Adopting a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of many heart diseases, including aortic stenosis. It includes eating a balanced and healthy diet, regular exercise, and avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption.
  • Manage your blood pressure: High blood pressure can contribute to aortic stenosis, so keep your blood pressure within a healthy range. You can achieve this through a healthy diet, regular exercise, and taking any prescribed medications as directed by your doctor.
  • Control your cholesterol: High cholesterol levels can cause a buildup of plaque in the arteries, which can contribute to aortic stenosis. You can help control your cholesterol levels by eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly. Your doctor may also recommend cholesterol-lowering medications if necessary.
  • Treat other underlying conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as rheumatic fever or infections, can increase the risk of developing aortic stenosis. Treating these underlying conditions can help prevent aortic stenosis.
  • Regular medical check-ups: Regular medical check-ups can help identify underlying conditions that may increase your risk of aortic stenosis. Your doctor may recommend imaging tests to check the condition of your heart valves.

If you have a family history of aortic stenosis or are at high risk due to other medical conditions, a Cardiologist may recommend additional screening and monitoring. Ultimately, it's crucial to work with your healthcare provider to develop a plan that addresses your specific risk factors for aortic stenosis.



Aortic Stenosis diagnosis usually involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. Here are the steps usually involved in diagnosing aortic stenosis:

  • Medical History: Your doctor will ask about your symptoms, medical history, and any risk factors for heart disease. Symptoms of aortic stenosis may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and fainting spells.
  • Physical Examination: Your doctor will listen to your heart using a stethoscope to check for abnormal heart sounds, such as a heart murmur, that may indicate Aortic Stenosis.
  • Diagnostic Tests: Your doctor may order one or more diagnostic tests to confirm the diagnosis of aortic stenosis. These may include:

    1. Echocardiogram: This is a non-invasive test that uses sound waves to create images of the heart. An echocardiogram can show the size and function of the heart chambers, the thickness of the heart muscle, and the movement of the aortic valve.
    2. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This is a simple test that records the electrical activity of the heart. An ECG can show any abnormalities in the heart rhythm or function.
    3. Cardiac catheterization: It is an invasive procedure where a thin, flexible tube is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin or arm and guided to the heart. This procedure can measure the pressure in the heart and check for any blockages in the arteries.
    4. Stress test: This test measures how the heart responds to physical activity. A stress test can see how well the heart functions when working harder.
    5. Monitoring: If you are diagnosed with aortic stenosis, your doctor may recommend regular monitoring to track the progression of the disease and any changes in symptoms. Depending on the severity of the condition, treatment may involve medication, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

Treatment of Aortic Stenosis | When to Consult a Doctor

The treatment of aortic stenosis depends on the severity of the condition and the presence of symptoms. Mild cases of aortic stenosis may not require any treatment, but regular monitoring is recommended. Treatment options for aortic stenosis include:

  • Medications: Medications may be prescribed to manage symptoms such as high blood pressure or heart failure. In some cases, medication may delay the progression of aortic stenosis.
  • Lifestyle changes: Lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and quitting smoking can help manage symptoms and improve overall health.
  • Aortic valve replacement: It is the most effective treatment for severe aortic stenosis. Aortic valve replacement involves surgically removing the narrowed or damaged valve and replacing it with a new valve. This procedure is done through open-heart surgery or minimally invasive techniques such as transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).
  • Balloon valvuloplasty: This is a less invasive procedure that involves inserting a catheter with a balloon on the end into the aortic valve. The balloon is inflated to widen the valve opening, improving blood flow. However, this procedure is usually reserved for patients not shortlisted for valve replacement.

Treatment choice will depend on the patient's overall health, the severity of aortic stenosis, and symptoms. It is important to discuss the treatment options with a Cardiologist to determine the best course of action.