Overview of Arthritis

Arthritis is swelling and tenderness of one or more joints. The most common arthritis form includes osteoarthritis and other common are rheumatic conditions that are arthritis-related, such as gout, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

A person may feel different symptoms, such as joint pain and stiffness that may get worse with aging. Osteoarthritis is a condition that causes the breakdown of cartilage. Basically, cartilage is the slippery and hard tissue that covers the bones' ending points where they meet to form joints.

While rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system begins to attack joints, especially the lining of joints. Gout is also a type of arthritis that occurs when there is too much uric acid in the blood.

The treatment varies from person to person but doctors help to control the symptoms of arthritis.

Arthritis Meaning in Urdu

آرتھرائٹس کو جوڑوں کا درد یا گھٹیا بھی کہا جاتا ہے۔ اس مرض کی وجہ سے ایک یا ایک سے زائد جوڑ سوزش کا شکار ہو جاتے ہیں۔ گھٹیا کی بنیادی علامات میں درد، سوزش، اور جکڑن شامل ہیں۔ یہ علامات عمر بڑھنے کے ساتھ ساتھ شدت اختیار کر جاتی ہیں۔ اس مرض کا تا حال کوئی علاج دریافت نہیں ہو سکا۔ تاہم کچھ ادوویات کے استعمال کی مدد سے اس کی علامات کو کنٹرول کرنے کی کوشش کی جاتی ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ گھٹیا کے مریضوں کو ورزش کرنے اور وزن میں کمی لانے کا مشورہ دیا جاتا ہے۔

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Signs and Symptoms of Arthritis

Signs and symptoms may vary as it depends on the type of arthritis. The common symptoms may include:

  • Stiffness
  • Reduced range of motion
  • Redness
  • Pain
  • Swelling

Types of Arthritis

Given Below are the types of arthritis:

  • Reactive arthritis
  • Septic arthritis
  • Thumb arthritis
  • Gout
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Psoriatic arthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis

Causes of Arthritis

The damage to joints can be caused by the two types of arthritis:


It is the most common arthritis type that involves wear-and-tear damage to the cartilage of a joint. Cartilage plays an important role in joint placement as it cushions the bone ends and provides frictionless motion of a joint. Damage to cartilage leads to bone grinding directly causing symptoms, like pain, and does not allow motion. Such bone conditions may lead to an infection or an injury. Severely damaged cartilage leads to inflammation and swelling of the joint lining.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

In this condition, the immune system begins to attack the lining of the joint capsule. It is a tough membrane that encloses all joint parts. The synovial membrane becomes swollen. This disease leads to bone damage by destroying the cartilage.


Risk Factors of Arthritis

The following factors increase the risk of arthritis:

Age: Age can increase the risk of arthritis types, such as gout, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, etc.

Gender: Being a woman can put you at high risk of rheumatoid arthritis as compared to a man. Some other types are more likely to develop in men, such as gout, etc.

Family History: Some arthritis types may run in families and you are at risk of developing this disease if your parents or siblings have had it.

Have had Joint Injury: An injured joint also increases the risk of developing arthritis.

Overweight: Extra fat or being overweight puts pressure on your joints like the knees, spine, and hips.

Health Complications

A person may find it difficult to perform daily tasks if the arm or hand is affected by severe arthritis. It may also affect the ability to walk and sit straight up.





Doctors perform a physical exam to check the joint's condition, including swelling, warmth, and redness. It also includes the movement of the joints.

The following tests may be required:


Imaging detects the problem within the joint that may bring on some symptoms. These tests include:

Computerized tomography (CT): CT Scan takes x-rays from different angles and collects the information to create an internal structure view. This test also helps to see bone and its surrounding tissues.

Ultrasound: This test (Ultrasound)involves high-frequency sound waves to get an image of soft tissues. It also takes an image of bursae which is a fluid-containing structure near joints and cartilage. It guides the specialists on how to remove fluid and how to inject medicines.

Magnetic resonance imaging MRI: This test involves a combo of radio waves with a magnetic field. MRIs help to get more detailed images of cartilage (soft tissues), tendons, and ligaments.

X-rays: It involves low levels of radiation that image bone. It shows cartilage, bone spurs, bone damage, and cartilage loss. X-rays do not show early development of bone damage but track disease progression.

Treatment of Arthritis | When to Consult a Doctor

The treatment of arthritis mainly focuses on controlling symptoms and improving joint function. A combination of treatments can work more effectively to reduce the symptoms of arthritis.


Some medications can help to treat arthritis but the main treatment depends on the type of arthritis. Some of the common medicines include:


Some steroids like corticosteroid medicines help to reduce inflammation and pain. It also slows down the damage to the bone.

Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs

The intake of these medications can slow down the progress of rheumatoid arthritis and protect the joints and tissues. Such medications can also help to prevent permanent bone damage.


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can help to reduce pain and swelling.


For many types of arthritis, therapy is considered. The exercises improve the motion and also strengthen the muscles surrounding joints.


If other treatments do not help in arthritis treatment, doctors may suggest surgery:

Replacement of Joints: An artificial joint is replaced by the removal of a damaged joint. Joint replacements happen in the knees and hips.

Joint Fusion: It is performed for smaller joints, like fingers, ankles, and wrist.

Joint Repair: In this procedure, the joints surfaces are realigned to reduce pain and promote motion.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies

A person may control the symptoms of arthritis with the following practices:

Physical Activity helps to keep joints flexible. You can practice different physical activities, such as swimming.

Assistive Devices can help to improve your ability to perform well in daily life and also provide protection to your joints. These devices include walkers, shoe inserts, etc.

Weight Loss reduces the stress on the joints and also increases mobility. It also limits joint injury in the future.

Hot and Cold Compress can help in arthritis pain relief.

Some alternative remedies for arthritis may also give effective results.

These remedies include:

Chondroitin: It relieves pain from osteoarthritis, but needs more studies.

Fish Oil: Applying fish oil to joints controls arthritis symptoms of many types.

Massage: Kneading of muscles improves the blood flow that relieves pain.

Yoga and tai chi: It involves stretching movements that enhance the flexibility of joints.

In case of any concerning signs and symptoms, you need to visit a certified rheumatologist