Overview of Asthma

Asthma Meaning in Urdu

دمہ ایک خطرناک بیماری ہے جو کہ پھیپھڑوں کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ اس کی وجہ سے پھیپھڑے اور سانس لینے والی نالیاں جکڑن اور سوزش کا شکار ہو جاتی ہیں۔ یہ بیماری بچوں کو ایک لمبے عرصے کے لیے متاثر کرتی ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ یہ بڑی عمر کے افراد کو بھی متاثر کر سکتی ہے۔ دمہ کی وجہ سے سانس لینے میں مشکلات کا سامنا کرنا پڑتا ہے جب کہ چھاتی بھی زیادہ وقت کے لیے جکڑن کا شکار ہوتی ہے۔ اس کے ساتھ ساتھ صبح اور رات کے وقت شدید کھانسی بھی لاحق ہوتی ہے۔

Asthma (دمہ), also known as bronchial asthma is a lung disease in which excess mucus production blocks the airways causing swelling and difficulty in breathing. This can result in excessive coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath. It is a long-life condition that needs to be managed throughout life.

For some people, asthma is a minor difficulty in breathing, for others, it can be a serious issue that hinders daily life activities. This condition however can never be cured completely but asthma symptoms can be managed.

Signs and Symptoms of Asthma

Asthma symptoms can vary from one person to another, some people have frequent asthma attacks while others experience them only while performing exerting tasks. But, some of the common symptoms of asthma include:

  • Tightness in the chest
  • Coughing and wheezing attacks
  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing while breathing out and exhaling

There are certain asthma symptoms that signal towards worsening of the condition, including:

  • If the symptoms become more frequent and troublesome
  • Persistent difficulty in breathing that needs to be measured with a device
  • Frequent need to use inhaler and breathing devices

Types of Asthma

There are a few types of asthma observed generally, these are explained in detail below:

Seasonal Asthma

This type of asthma only triggers at certain times of the year. Usually, it occurs in the winter season or when it’s hay fever season.

Exercise-Induced Asthma

Some people who have not been diagnosed with asthma feel symptoms just like asthma while they are exercising. It usually affects athletes or people who keep indulging in exercise more than usual.

Allergic Asthma

Allergic asthma, also known as atopic asthma, only gets triggered by allergens like pets, dust mites, and pollen. This particular type can be avoided by staying away from the triggers as much as you can.

Non-Allergic Asthma

Non-Allergic asthma is unlike allergic asthma where there needs to be a trigger. There is no specific cause behind this asthma found as of now.

Causes of Asthma

There are a few causes and triggers that can make you get an asthma attack, these can be food items or just some everyday general factors like,

  • Weather Changes
  • Smoking
  • Sinusitis
  • Medications
  • Excess Exercise
  • Heartburn
  • Sea Food
  • Peanuts

Risk Factors of Asthma

Several factors are believed to increase the risk of asthma. These are:

  • Suffering from allergic conditions like hay fever, atopic dermatitis (itchy and red skin), or eye allergy due to allergies
  • Smoking
  • Being overweight
  • Exposure to air pollution and fumes from factories
  • Second-hand smoking
  • Family History of Asthma



There is no solid way to prevent asthma, however, a doctor can advise you on a treatment plan to manage your asthma symptoms. There needs to be regular monitoring of this condition so make sure that you follow these certain steps:

Identify your Triggers

It is important to avoid all kinds of triggers and allergens that flare up asthma from pollen to pets and air pollution. Keep an eye on your triggers and prevent asthma attacks.

Get your Vaccination Done

Getting vaccinated for pneumonia and influenza can save you from getting asthma flare-ups.

Treat Your Attacks Before Time

When you get the signal of an asthma attack coming, make sure that you take your medication beforehand to prevent asthma from getting worse.

Take Control Over Your Breathing

In case of early identification of the signs and symptoms of asthma, make sure that you get yourself a home peak flow meter to keep a track of your breathing to avoid asthma flare-ups.



For the diagnosis of asthma, your doctor might take certain tests. These include:


This test is conducted by using a machine in which air is blown out and then is monitored.

Peak Flow Test

A handheld device is used that measures the speed of how fast you take a breath out. This is done several times over a week.

FeNO Test

To find out any sort of inflammation in the lungs, a machine is used to check the level of nitric oxide in your breath.

Treatment of Asthma | When to Consult a Doctor

Asthma is never fully treated but can be managed well. Certain steps can be taken to manage asthma attacks and flare-ups.


It is very essential to use medication for the treatment of asthma. These can be anti-allergy medications or other prescription medications that your doctor provides.


Inhalers are prescribed by doctors to ease the tightness in the airways of the lungs. They make breathing easier reducing the severity of symptoms of asthma.


Anticholinergics such as ipratropium can be used. These lessen the production of mucus and open the airways for proper and easy breathing.

Consult a Pulmonologist if your condition worsens.