Autism Spectrum Disorder

Overview of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder Meaning in Urdu

یہ ایک اعصابی بیماری ہے جو لوگوں کی دوسروں سے ملنے جلنے، بات چیت کرنے، اور سیکھنے کی صلاحیت کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ یہ بیماری عمر کے کسی بھی حصے میں لاحق ہو سکتی ہے، تاہم یہ بیماری زیادہ تر دو سال کی عمر تک کے بچوں کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ اس بیماری کا شکار افراد مختلف جذبات سے محروم ہو جاتے ہیں، جیسا کہ ان کے چہرے سے غصے یا خوشی ک اظہار نہیں ہوتا۔ ایسے افراد سے بات کرتے وقت انسان یہ محسوس کرتا ہے کہ وہ آپ کی بات توجہ سے نہیں سن رہے۔

اس بیماری کا شکار کچھ بچے نئی چیزیں سیکھنے سے قاصر ہو جاتے ہیں تو کئی بچوں کی ذہانت کا لیول بہت کم ہوتا ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ اس بیماری سے متاثر بچے جن کو سیکھنے میں مشکلات کا سامنا نہیں کرنا پڑتا، ان کو کمیونیکیشن میں مشکلات پیش آتی ہیں۔

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (آٹزم سپیکٹرم ڈسآرڈر) is one of the most growing developmental disabilities. It can cause challenges related to social interaction, communication, and behavior. Some people with this disorder have repetitive or limited patterns of behavior. The term spectrum refers to the range of symptoms that come with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

All other conditions that used to be considered separate, now come under Autism Spectrum Disorder. Autism, is an unspecified form of pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger’s syndrome, and childhood degenerative syndrome. It begins in early childhood and hinders the proper functioning of an individual in society.

Autism Spectrum Disorder Meaning in Urdu

یہ ایک اعصابی بیماری ہے جو لوگوں کی دوسروں سے ملنے جلنے، بات چیت کرنے، اور سیکھنے کی صلاحیت کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ یہ بیماری عمر کے کسی بھی حصے میں لاحق ہو سکتی ہے، تاہم یہ بیماری زیادہ تر دو سال کی عمر تک کے بچوں کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ اس بیماری کا شکار افراد مختلف جذبات سے محروم ہو جاتے ہیں، جیسا کہ ان کے چہرے سے غصے یا خوشی ک اظہار نہیں ہوتا۔ ایسے افراد سے بات کرتے وقت انسان یہ محسوس کرتا ہے کہ وہ آپ کی بات توجہ سے نہیں سن رہے۔

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Signs and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Most of the children are observed showing signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the infancy period. The symptoms shown at this time include,

  • lack of response to their name
  • decreased eye contact
  • disinterest in surroundings

A lot of times it is observed that children develop normally at the start and then, later on, show aggressiveness or start to forget the language that they already know. These symptoms are usually observed around the age of 2.

The level of severity and the behavior pattern differs for each child. This can range from high functioning to low functioning. Given below are some of the common signs and symptoms are shown by people (children and adults) with an autism spectrum disorder.

Social Interaction and Communication Skills

A lot of problems with communication skills and lack of social interaction are observed in adults and children with autism spectrum disorder including,

  • Lack of understanding of simple questions
  • Repetition of words and phrases
  • Poor eye contact and lack of facial expression
  • Failing to understand other people’s expressions and tone of voice
  • Use of robot-like speech or singsong voice while talking
  • Being passive-aggressive and disruptive behavior
  • Inability to start a conversation or continue one

Behavioral Patterns

An adult or a child suffering from autism is observed to have limited interest in activities and have repetitive behavioral patterns. Some of the major signs include,

  • Odd and stiff body posture
  • Disturbance at the slightest change in the routine
  • Clumsiness and weird body movements
  • Fixed eating patterns i.e eating only one type of food
  • Interest in activities that might harm like spinning too much or head banging
  • Fascination with an object is observed i.e. a toy, a spinning object, or a car, and not being able to understand the purpose of the object at the same time
  • Unusual sensitivity to loud sounds, pain, temperature, or even light

With time and age, a lot of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder start engaging with others, and very few disturbances and changes in their behavior are observed. Some teenagers however as they age, their symptoms get worse.

Early Signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Babies

Doctors in order to identify Autism Spectrum Disorder in babies suggest developmental tests. These are recommended after observing language skill delays, cognitive delays, and delays in social skills. The major signs to look for include,

  • The baby doesn't speak a word for the first 16 months
  • Show no to zero facial expressions by 9 months
  • No babbling  by 12 months
  • No gestures are observed, like pointing toward certain objects
  • No sign of language development till the age of 2

Types of Autism Spectrum Disorder

There are different types of Autism observed, these are Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Asperger’s Syndrome, Autistic Disorder, and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. All of these are explained below:

  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)

Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders are observed with delayed development in socializing and communicating. They show resistance to changing routines and show repetitive behaviors. Pervasive Developmental Disorder is no longer called by its name as it is now known as Autism Spectrum Disorder.

  • Asperger’s Syndrome

A person suffering from Asperger’s Syndrome is said to be on the milder spectrum of Autism Spectrum Disorder. People suffering from Asperger’s Syndrome are observed to be extremely intelligent and handle their life properly. They only struggle socially but are able to have conversations over the things they like.

  • Autistic Disorder

This syndrome has the same symptoms as the other types but is at a more severe and intense level.

  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

This is the rarest form to be observed. In this particular disorder, normal children are observed to lose control over their communication and socializing skills between the age of 2 to 4. It is often observed that children with Childhood Disintegrative Disorder develop seizure disorder later in life.

Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Given the complexity of the disorder, there is no single cause identified that causes Autism Spectrum Disorder. Environmental Factors and Genes both play a major role in causing Autism Spectrum Disorder. Given below is the explanation:

  • Environmental Factors

Several pieces of research on the impact of environmental factors in recent times have been done. Medication consumed during pregnancy, complications while conceiving, viral infections, and even polluted air might be one of the major reasons for triggering Autism Spectrum Disorder.

  • Genetics

There are several genes present in the body that appear to be involved in causing Autism Spectrum Disorder. In some cases, it has been observed that Autism Spectrum Disorder is associated with syndromes like Fragile X Syndrome or Rett Syndrome. In other cases, certain mutations in the genes can result in causing an increased risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Some genes impact the development of the brain while others mutated genes are observed to be inherited.


Risk Factors of Autism Spectrum Disorder

There are a lot of factors present in everyday life that may cause an increased risk of multiple types of Autism Spectrum Disorder. These can be biological, genetic, and even environmental.

  • Children with someone at home dealing with Autism Spectrum Disorder are more likely to suffer from the condition.
  • People who already have genetic conditions like tuberous sclerosis are more likely to get affected by Autism Spectrum Disorder.
  • Children that are born to parents of old age are more at risk of getting affected.
  • Prescription drugs like thalidomide and valproic acid when consumed during pregnancy can increase the risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder.
  • It is important to take care of the baby before, during, and after birth, as these are times when the baby is most likely to develop Autism Spectrum Disorder.



There is no way Autism Spectrum Disorder can be prevented. But there are treatments available to improve language development skills and behaviors. It is not possible to outgrow autism spectrum disorder but it can be managed well with the help of a trained expert.



There are no medical tests involved in diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder, but a behavioral examination and a developmental test are conducted after the age of 2 for the pepper diagnosis of the condition.

Doctors and trained experts perform diagnoses by performing screenings and might ask the parents and teachers to monitor the behavior of the child.

Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder | When to Consult a Doctor

There are different forms of treatments that can help greatly in treating Autism Spectrum Disorder. These can be,

  • Developmental
  • Behavioral
  • Psychological
  • Pharmacological

All of these are explained below.

Developmental Approaches

Developmental approaches are used to improve developmental skills that include, physical skills, interconnected developmental skills, and language skills. One of the most commonly used therapy for developmental purposes is Speech and Language Therapy. This therapy particularly helps in improving the speech and language of the person suffering from Autism Spectrum Disorder.

There are other developmental therapies as well. These include,

Occupational Therapy: Occupational Therapy teaches the person suffering to live n independent life. This therapy improves skills like bathing, eating, dressing, and people’s relation. Other forms of Occupational Therapies include:

  • Physical Therapy

Physical Therapy can help in the improvement of the fingers, trunk, and overall body.

  • Sensory Integration Therapy

This helps a lot in the management of responses that occur as a result of sensory input that might be restrictive.

Behavioral Approaches

The use of behavioral approaches to treating Autism Spectrum Disorder is widely accepted among healthcare professionals. One of the most used behavioral approaches to treat Autism is called Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). This approach helps in encouraging desired behaviors and helps in eradicating undesired behaviors in order to improve a number of skills.

There are further two more types of Applied Behavior Analysis called:

  • Discrete Trial Training
  • Pivotal Response Training
  • Discrete Trial Training

A step-by-step approach is followed during Discrete Trial Training to improve responses and behaviors. Desired behaviors are rewarded and undesired ones are ignored.

  • Pivotal Response Training

It is usually taken place in a very natural setting rather than in a clinic. The goal of this training is to bring improvements in the skills that help learn other skills.

Psychological Approaches

Psychological approaches are used to treat the pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. One of the best therapies used for this purpose is Cognitive Behavior Therapy.

Pharmacological Approaches

There is no specific medicine that can be used to treat Autism Spectrum Disorder, but there are some medications that can be consumed in order to manage the symptoms like hyperactivity, seizures, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems that come along with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

In case of any concerning signs and symptoms, you need to visit a certified autism consultant