Bone Fracture

Overview of Bone Fracture

Fracture Meaning in Urdu

فریکچر کو ہڈی کا ٹوٹنا بھی کہا جاتا ہے۔ اگر ہڈی ٹوٹنے کی وجہ سے جِلد بھی متاثر ہو یا پھٹ جائے تو اسے کمپاؤنڈ فریکچر کہا جاتا ہے۔ حادثات، گرنے، یا کھیلوں کی وجہ سے لگنے والی چوٹ سے ہڈی ٹوٹ سکتی ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ اگر ہڈیوں کی کثافت کم جائے یا ہڈیوں کا بھربھراپن لاحق جائے تو ہڈیاں کسی بڑے مسئلے کے بغیر بھی ٹوٹ سکتی ہیں۔ فریکچر کی وجہ سے شدید درد لاحق ہو سکتا ہے، اس کے ساتھ ساتھ  جِلد سُن ہو سکتی ہے، اور حرکت کرنے میں بھی مشکلات کا سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے۔

Fracture or broken bone (ٹوٹنا یہڈ / یکچرفر یہڈ) is breakage or injury of bone in certain parts of the body like a leg, arm, elbow, wrist, etc. It can mostly occur in older patients, rather than children and adults.

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Signs and Symptoms of Bone Fracture

Following are the main symptoms of fractures that are enlisted below according to body parts they are linked with:

  • Arm: Pain, swelling, abnormal bend, difficulty using or moving arm, warmth, bruising, or redness.
  • Elbow: Pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness, feeling a ‘pop’ noise at the time of fracture, or visible deformity.
  • Wrist: Pain, swelling, decreased use of hand and wrist, appearance deformity, not to hold a grip.
  • Hand: Pain, swelling, tenderness to touch, stiffness, and weakness. 
  • Finger: Pain, swelling, unable to move the finger, a shortened finger, or a suppressed lump.
  • Leg: Severe pain, swelling, tenderness, scaring, obvious deformity, and unable to walk.
  • Knee: Pain, swelling, scarring, inability to straighten the knee, and unable to walk.
  • Ankle: Severe pain, swelling, tenderness to touch, scarring, deformity, and unable to walk.
  • Foot: Severe pain, swelling, scarring, numbness in toes and foot, decreased range of motion, unable to walk comfortably, and visible deformity.
  • Toe: Pain, swelling, discolouration, scarring, and uncomfortable walk.

Types of Bone Fracture

Depending upon the severity and location of the injury, the fracture is divided into the following types:

  1. Open or Compound: It is a serious medical condition in which broken bones puncture the skin and need quick, vigorous treatment to reduce the incidence of infection.
  2. Closed: It is a type of fracture in which skin is not discontinued from the bones.
  3. Displaced: In this type, each side of broken bones is not aligned, and needs surgical treatment for proper recovery.
  4. Comminuted: Broken bones are turned into pieces that require surgery for proper recovery.
  5. Greenstick: This type of fracture mostly occurs in children because their bones are more elastic than in adults. This fracture as compared to the whole breakage is just like a green stick of wood that's why its name is related to greenstick.
  6. Buckle (Torus): It is also common in children. In this type of fracture, one side of the bone is suppressed, which results in the other side of the bone molding in a curved shape in a form of a buckle but it does not crack. 

Causes of Bone Fracture

It can occur because of many reasons, but the common reason is fall injury, severe accident, sports injury, etc. As people age, they have a greater risk of fracture due to weakened bones

Fracture injury is not only common in the older population but also in children. The children are more energetic and have more tendency to participate in physical activities such as games etc that increase fracture risk. 

Moreover, people who have already suffered from chronic conditions are more prone to fractures. These chronic conditions include infection, osteoporosis, infection, or tumour. This type is related to pathological fracture. Similarly, Stress fractures are common in professional sportspeople, due to forceful stresses and strain constantly.


Risk Factors of Bone Fracture

Risk factors for bone fracture are:

  • Smoking
  • Steroids
  • Diabetes
  • Family history 
  • Other chronic disorders 
  • Previous fracture 
  • Alcohol 
  • Rheumatoid arthritis 
  • Age

Health-Related Complications of Fracture

Some common health-related complications due to fractured bone are:

  • Blood clots
  • Blockage of blood vessels
  • Joints stiffness
  • Pressure ulcers
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Infections
  • Uneven limbs
  • Joint problem
  • Osteonecrosis
  • Compartment syndrome



Prevention of bone fracture is just as important as treatment. Here are some natural ways by which you can prevent fractures.

  • Vitamin D is an important ingredient in fracture healing. It helps to absorb calcium. The calcium itself is needed for strong and healthy bones. You can easily get Vitamin D through sunlight, eggs, and oily fish as well. Along with it, milk, cheese, yoghurt, and dark green leafy vegetables are good reservoirs of calcium.  
  • Physical Activity is necessary to make bones stronger. This is essential especially in the case of the older population. Physical activities play a major role in the growth and strengthening of bones. Such physical activities include skipping, walking, running, and dancing, or any other form of exercise.

Women need to be more aware of dropping calcium levels pre and post-menopause. It weakens the bone density and strengthens them. Doctors advised taking more calcium supplements or calcium-rich food during this period. 

To reduce the post-menopausal osteoporosis risk or fracture you need to follow these steps:

  • Take a short session of weight-bearing exercise each week.
  • Do not take alcoholic drinks and smoke.
  • Get Vitamin D through sunlight as much as you can.
  • Add a Calcium-rich diet to your lifestyle.


Your doctor will ask about your medical history, conduct a physical examination, identify signs and symptoms, will examine your injury through an X-ray, MRI, or CT scan, depending upon the severity of the disease and then make a complete diagnosis for illness.

Treatment of Bone Fracture | When to Consult a Doctor

Bone fracture treatment depends on the severity of the injury. Bone healing is the natural process in which bone is healed automatically. Hence, there are many ways to treat a bone fracture. For example, fracture reduction is done through manipulation, closed reduction (pulling the bone fragments), or surgery. General anaesthesia may also be used in treatment. 

Immobilization –is the technique in which bones must be aligned together in order to heal them. It is further divided into four techniques:

  • Plaster casts or plastic functional braces- In this, fitting plaster is applied to restrict the movement of broken bone so that the fracture gets enough time to heal. 
  • Metal plates and screws – Minimally invasive techniques to treat fractures.
  • Intra-medullary nails – In this method, internal metal rods are displaced from the centre of long bones. In the case of children, elastic wires may be used for treating fractures. 
  • External fixators – These are made up of metal or carbon fibre. They have steel pins that insert into the bone directly through the skin and make the scaffold outside the body to treat the fracture.

Generally, the area of fractured bone remains immobilized for 2-8 weeks. The duration depends on how much bone is affected and complications such as infection or irregular blood supply you have.

Besides this, another technique physical therapy is required after the bone healing process. This is done to strengthen the muscles and to improve bone movement in the affected area. If a fracture is on a joint it might be difficult to bend the joint or if the skin and soft tissue were damaged around the injured bone or joint then plastic surgery is necessary.

Ultrasound therapy is one of the latest techniques that is used in low intensity to the affected area that heals the fracture. Bone graft therapy is another advanced fracture treatment. In this technique, natural or synthetic bone is inserted to move and heal the broken bone. As per current research studies,  stem cells therapy is one of the highly advanced therapy. This stem cell is used to treat difficult fractures.