Overview of Bruise

A bruise meaning in Urdu چوٹ medically termed a contusion or ecchymosis. It is characterized by black and blue marks that result from skin injury or trauma. This leads to the accumulation of blood beneath the skin due to damaged blood cells as well as appearing near the skin surface. Some examples of trauma are cuts, injury to blood vessels by external objects, etc.

Signs and Symptoms of Bruise

The symptoms of bruising depend on the condition associated with it. The first sign of bruises is discoloration of the skin. The colour of the skin starts to appear after a few hours that are:

  • Red (Initial colour)
  • Blue
  • Purple
  • Green
  • Brown 
  • Yellow (at healing time)

An affected person also feels tenderness and pain after the first few days, but the pain decreases gradually as the color starts to disappear. Also have no risk of infection, because of unbroken skin.

Types of Bruise

The medical term for a bruise that a doctor usually calls is ecchymosis or contusions. It consists of different types that enlisted below:

  • Hematoma:  Accumulation of blood outside the blood vessels due to trauma such as a car accident, severe falling, etc is called a hematoma. It results in severe bruising and tissue damage which ultimately causes pain and swelling. 

  • Purpura: It involves a small amount of bleeding beneath the skin. 

  • Petechiae: It appears as reddish dots (less than 2mm) on the skin. After applying gentle pressure, do not change to white color.

  • Senile Purpura: As age passes by, the skin becomes thinner, dryer, and become flaking. This type is referred to as senile purpura.

  • Black Eye: In this type, a severe head injury, under the eye may cause swelling, discoloration, and pain. For example, if a person is affected by an eye injury that results in bleeding inside the eye, may accumulate fluid under the eye or facial fracture.

  • Tramline Bruise: In this type, a person is struck with some cylindrical object like iron rods, in which the edges of blood vessels become ruptured. The blood starts to leak out from damaged vessels but some flow back to undamaged ones after removal of the contacting object causing a tramline bruise.

Causes of Bruise

The bruises depend on the underlying cause which can be anything like a knee injury, shin injury, or falls from a chair, etc. All these injuries may lead to a bruise on the specified area.

The most common causes of bruises include:

  • Sports injuries
  • Car accidents
  • Concussions
  • Head injury
  • Ankle sprain
  • Muscle strain
  • Blows, such as hitting or being hit by external objects (ball)
  • Medications such as aspirin or warfarin (Coumadin)
  • Supplements

Risk Factors of Bruise

Some important risk factors that can cause bruises include:

  • Suffering from bleeding disorders
  • Intake of blood thinning medicines 
  • Vitamin deficiency 
  • Older age

Bleeding Disorders

Sometimes bruising may be accompanied by the following kinds of bleeding disorders.

  • Von Willebrand disease
  • Hemophilia A
  • Christmas disease
  • Factor VII deficiency
  • Factor X deficiency
  • Factor V deficiency
  • Factor II deficiency

Acute bruises appear due to burn, cut or fall, and can recover through the body's natural healing process.

Certain medications such as blood thinners and corticosteroids may cause bruises due to the blood-thinning effect. Some herbal supplements like fish oil produce a similar effect of bruising.

Other possible reasons for bruising developing after injection or wearing tight clothes are also noticeable in an affected person.



Some of the ways that can help you to prevent bruising include:

  • Keep furniture and other hard surfaces things sorted
  • Place sharp or hazardous objects carefully to limit contact
  • Ensure proper lighting 
  • Don’t forget protective gears to prevent occupational danger 
  • Use protection while driving or staying outdoors
  • Consume a diet enriched with vitamins


The diagnosis of the bruise has been conducted according to the condition of the patient. If it is just a minor injury on the body then the general physician does not allow performing any tests. If they suspect any broken bones or severe injury, these tests might be recommended by a general physician

If a victim feels swelling or severe pain; the doctor may recommend an X-ray of the specific area to diagnose any broken bones.

If bruising on the body appears frequently, the doctor may suggest a blood test to check the bleeding disorders in a person.

A doctor may suspect a certain pattern of bruises that may have the possibility of physical abuse.

Treatment of Bruise | When to Consult a Doctor

The RICE technique is considered one of the best first aid procedures for a healing bruise. It is easy for anyone that can apply it at home. RICE stands for rest, ice, compress, and elevate:

  • Rest the specific bruised area to heal quickly, if possible.
  • Ice the bruised area with an ice pack wrapped in a towel. Keep it in the affected place for 10 to 20 minutes. Repeat it several times a day (at least twice a day).
  • Compress the bruised area with the help of an elastic bandage, if it is swelling. Don't make it too tight.
  • Elevate the injured area.

Along with it, a doctor may also prescribe over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers to reduce the pain.

Do not take any medications without a doctor’s consultation.