Celiac Disease

Overview of Celiac Disease

Celiac Disease Meaning in Urdu

یہ بیماری ہاضمہ اور مدافعتی نظام کے متعلق ہے جس کی وجہ سے چھوٹی آنت کو نقصان پہنچتا ہے۔ اس بیماری کے شکار افراد کو اسہال، پیٹ پھول جانا، گیس، اور خون کی کمی جیسی علامات کا سامنا کرنا پڑتا ہے۔ اس بیماری کی علامات گلوٹین نامی پروٹین کی وجہ سے شدت اختیار کر سکتی ہیں۔ ان علامات سے چھٹکارا پانا زیادہ مشکل نہیں ہوتا کیوں کہ اس کے لاحق ہونے کی صورت میں ایسی غذاؤں کا استعمال ترک کرنے کا مشورہ دیا جاتا ہے جن میں گلوٹین بھرپور مقدار میں پایا جاتا ہے۔

Celiac disease (مرضِ شکم) is also known as celiac sprue or gluten-sensitivity enteropathy. It is a medical condition in which the person suffers from an immune reaction after consuming a gluten-rich diet. Gluten is a protein that is widely found in barley and rye.

If you are suffering from celiac disease, then consuming gluten can cause your immune system to respond. With time, the reaction worsens and causes serious damage to the small intestine. Due to this damage to the intestine, a person might face some other health complications such as bloating, diarrhea, and weight loss.

Signs and Symptoms of Celiac Disease

Sign and Symptoms of Celiac Disease in Adults

Common signs and symptoms of celiac disease in adults are stomach problems such as gas and diarrhea. Following are some additional celiac disease symptoms:

  • Bloating
  • Constipation
  • Weight loss
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

If you have celiac disease, your small intestine is unable to digest nutrients from the food that you have consumed. This can lead to more severe health complications. Some other signs and symptoms of celiac disease are as follows:

Symptoms of Celiac Disease in Children

Children might suffer from the following symptoms. Such as:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Swollen belly
  • Gas
  • Constipation
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Delayed puberty
  • Weight loss
  • Damage to tooth enamel

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Types of Celiac Disease

Celiac disease can be categorized into three types. Each type has its symptoms.

Classical Celiac

Those who suffer from classical celiac are unable to absorb the nutrients present in the food. Some common symptoms of this type are as follows:

  • Weight loss
  • Stunted growth in children
  • Steatorrhea, pale or foul-smelling stools
  • Diarrhea

Nonclassical

People who have nonclassical do not show any sign of problem absorbing nutrients. But they are often suffering from autoimmune diseases. Some signs and symptoms of nonclassical are given below:

  • Anemia
  • Migraines
  • Difficulty in losing weight
  • Infertility
  • Tingling and numbness in hands or feet
  • Bloating and pain

Silent Celiac Disease

Patients who are suffering from silent celiac disease do not show any symptoms. But they still suffer from damage to the small intestine.

Causes of Celiac Disease

Celiac disease can be due to genetic problems. Some other factors that can cause celiac disease are as follows:

  • Infant-feeding practices
  • Gastrointestinal infections

In some cases, celiac disease can also become active after childbirth, during pregnancy, because of emotional stress, or after surgery.

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Risk Factors of Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is more common in people who suffer from the following risk factors:

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease
  • Microscopic colitis
  • Addison’s disease
  • A previous history of celiac disease in the family

Complications of Celiac Disease

If left untreated, celiac disease can lead to the following complications. Such as:

  • Malnutrition
  • Infertility and miscarriage
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Cancer
  • Nervous system problems

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Prevention

Celiac disease is a medical condition that is not preventable. But early detection and on-time management can prevent the onset of severe health complications.

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Diagnosis

Before trying out a gluten-free diet, it is important to get tested for celiac disease. Because the absence of gluten might make the blood test level appear normal. But if the test indicates celiac disease, then the doctor might recommend the following tests:

Endoscopy

In the endoscopy test, a long tube is inserted into the mouth. There is a camera attached to one end of the tube. It is then passed down to the throat. The camera gives a real-time visual of the condition of the small intestine. The doctors might then take a small tissue sample to analyze the damage further.

Capsule Endoscopy

In this test, a small wireless camera is used to take pictures of the damaged small intestine. The camera is inserted with the help of a small vitamin pill. As the camera continues to travel, the doctors get real-time images of the situation of the small intestine.

Treatment of Celiac Disease | When to Consult a Doctor

The best and most often recommended treatment for celiac disease is to consume a strict and gluten-free diet in the long run. Some of the foods that contain gluten are as follows:

  • Bulgur
  • Barley
  • Graham flour
  • Rye
  • Malt
  • Semolina
  • Spelt
  • Triticale
  • Farina

Consultation with a dietician is of extreme importance. Because they will design a proper diet plan for you that contains not even a trace of gluten. Those who have celiac disease can get affected by even small amounts of gluten in their foods. In addition to this, gluten can also be hidden in foods, medication, or some given below products.

  • Some over-the-counter medications
  • Modified starch, preservatives, and food stabilizes
  • Vitamin and mineral supplements
  • Communion wafers
  • Playdough

Vitamins and Mineral Supplements

Anemia is a complication of celiac disease. Thus the doctor might recommend you to take the following vitamins.

  • Folate
  • Copper
  • Vitamin B12
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin K
  • Zinc

Follow-Up

The doctor might also recommend you schedule a visit with them at regular intervals. The dietician can also monitor your body’s metabolism with some blood tests. In most cases, a diet change can cause the intestine to get healed. Children might take three to six months to complete recovery. In the case of adults, the complete healing might take months to several years.

If the symptoms of the disease are recurring then you might be recommended biopsies or endoscopy.

Medications

In case the small intestine is severely damaged then the doctor might recommend some steroids so that the inflammation can be controlled. Some common drugs that the doctors recommend are as follows:

  • Azathioprine
  • Budesonide

Doctors to treat Celiac Disease

Last updated on Monday 26/09/2022

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Ms. Eram Javed

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Ms. Kiran Sultana

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