Overview of Coronavirus

Coronavirus is a virus-borne illness that brings along a wide range of symptoms. The SARS-CoV-2 virus is responsible for a respiratory illness that can cause mild flu-like symptoms to even death. Coronavirus is a highly contagious virus and emerged as a global health crisis in 2019.

Mostly, people who got affected by the virus, develop mild to moderate symptoms and can recover on their own. However, in some cases severity of symptoms can be concerning and can even lead to death.

The pandemic wreaked havoc and has resulted in a total of 491 million cases and 6.15 million deaths worldwide today. Coronavirus belongs to the family of RNA viruses that make it prone to mutations. Prevention, however, is considered the best way to control the spread of the virus. Coronavirus vaccination, taking good care of your hygiene, and wearing masks in public places are some of the best preventive measures.

Coronavirus Prevalence

Till today, 1.5 million coronavirus cases have been reported in Pakistan with more than 30 thousand deaths.

Signs and Symptoms of Coronavirus

Coronavirus symptoms can vary from person to person. For some people, it can be asymptomatic (without any clinical signs) while for others symptoms can take from 2 days to 2 weeks to appear. Here are the most common symptoms for coronavirus.

  • Cough
  • Nasal congestion
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Chills

Some other less common symptoms of coronavirus are:

  • Sore throat
  • Shivering
  • Pain and aches
  • Headache
  • Stuffy or runny nose
  • Diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting
  • Redness and irritation in the eyes
  • Body rash

Here are the serious signs and symptoms of coronavirus that needs immediate medical treatment:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest pain
  • Confusion
  • Difficulty in mobility and speech

Types of Coronavirus

Causes of Coronavirus

Coronavirus disease is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus that is highly contagious. The virus is known to spread from person to person in different ways. Here are some of the common ways through which coronavirus spreads, including:

  • Droplet Transmission: The type of transmission occurs through the droplets when a person coughs or sneezes. These tiny droplets carrying viruses can infect the other person in no time.
  • Airborne Transmission: Airborne virus transmission occurs when the virus remains suspended in the air. When a person infected with the virus breathes in the air, virus particles can stay in the air for up to 3 years and consequently get transmitted to uninfected people breathing in the same air.
  • Surface Transmission: Viral transmission that takes place through surfaces is also a common mode of transmission for viruses. Surfaces such as shelves, doorknobs, etc. are known to house the virus for a few days that can infect people once they come in contact with the surfaces.
  • Other Modes of Transmission: Other modes of transmission such as through pets and feces can also be responsible for the transmission of the virus. However, there isn't enough evidence to support these claims.

Risk Factors of Coronavirus

Given below are certain risk factors that are associated with coronavirus infection.

  • Age, >60 years
  • Being male
  • Being overweight or obesity
  • Heart problems
  • Nervous system problems such as stroke and dementia
  • Blood disorders
  • Cancer
  • Liver or kidney diseases
  • Weak immune system
  • Down syndrome

Complications of Coronavirus

Some of the common complications associated with coronavirus include:



Coronavirus is a highly contagious disease that can be prevented. Here are some of the safety guideline to follow:

  • Get yourself vaccinated
  • Wear a mask
  • Wash your hands frequently
  • Maintain 6 ft distance
  • Use sanitizer regularly
  • Disinfect surfaces
  • Don’t go to crowded places
  • Cover your mouth while coughing and sneezing
  • Follow travel instructions
  • Follow quarantine guidelines
  • Eat healthy foods
  • Take immune boosters


For the diagnosis of coronavirus, COVID-19 PCR testing remains as an effective diagnostic tool.

Treatment of Coronavirus | When to Consult a Doctor

There is no cure for coronavirus. However, the treatment options vary from person to person.Here are some of the popular treatment options for coronavirus:

1- Medications

Recently, the FDA approved two medications for coronavirus. These include:

  • Casiriviman
  • Bamlanivimab

Note: Consult your doctor before taking any medications

2- Blood Plasma Therapy

For other people who become infected with coronavirus and their immune system is not producing enough antibodies, blood plasma therapy is considered effective.

In case of any concerning signs and symptoms, you need to reach out to a certified infectious disease specialist.