Overview of Dandruff

Dandruff is one of the common scalp conditions that cause flakes of skin to appear. It is not a life-threatening condition but can cause embarrassment. Some severe dandruff cases are difficult to treat but mild conditions can be treated using a medicated shampoo.

Dandruff Meaning in Urdu

سر کی خشکی ایک عام طبی مسئلہ ہے جو مرد و خواتین دونوں کو متاثر کرتا ہے۔ اس طبی مسئلے کو خطرناک نہیں سمجھا جاتا اور یہ متعدی بھی نہیں ہے، لیکن اس مسئلے کی وجہ سے کافی مشکلات کا سامنا کرنا پڑتا ہے اور اس سے چھٹکارا پانا کافی مشکل ہوتا ہے۔ اگر ڈینڈرف شدت اختیار نہ کرے تو اس سے مشکلات کے بغیر نجات حاصل کی جا سکتی ہے۔ سر کی خشکی کی وجہ سے خارش کا بھی سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے۔ جب کہ اس سے چھٹکارا پانے کے لیے مختلف اقسام کے تیل استعمال کیے جا سکتے ہیں۔

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Signs and Symptoms of Dandruff

Given below are the signs and symptoms of dandruff:

  • Itchy scalp
  • Skin flakes on beard, scalp, shoulder, hair, eyebrows, and mustache
  • Scaly and crusty scalp in infants
  • During cold weather, the symptoms of dandruff can appear more. Stress issues may also lead to more dandruff.

Types of Dandruff

There are different types of dandruff, such as:

  • Dry skin dandruff
  • Seborrhoeic dermatitis
  • Fungus-related dandruff
  • Oily–skin dandruff
  • Psoriasis-related dandruff

Causes of Dandruff

The following causing factors contribute to dandruff:

Dry Skin - Cold winter air makes your skin and scalp dry.
Contact Dermatitis - The contact dermatitis is a sensitive hair condition to hair care products or skin irritation due to allergens or irritants that cause itchy skin.
Malassezia - It is a yeast that feeds on the oil of the scalp. It occurs in people with oily skin.
Seborrheic Dermatitis - A bad case of dandruff is mild seborrheic dermatitis that affects areas of the body that produce more sebum.
Skin conditions can also cause dandruff, such as psoriasis and eczema.


Risk Factors of Dandruff

Everyone can experience dandruff but some risk factors can put you at high risk, including:

  • Age
  • Stress
  • Hormonal and immune factors
  • Using certain lotions
  • Certain skin disorders
  • Fatigue
  • Oily skin
  • Being male
  • Extreme weather
  • Infrequent shampooing





Your doctor can check dandruff by observing your scalp and hair.

Treatment of Dandruff | When to Consult a Doctor

A person can control dandruff by using some shampoos. If the dandruff is mild, a gentle shampoo can help to cleanse the scalp and remove the skin cell buildup. For a severe case, your doctor may recommend a medicated shampoo that is manufactured specially to treat dandruff.

People with oily skin can use the medicated shampoo thrice a week but a person with drier hair should shampoo less and should combine shampooing with a healthy hair moisturizer to keep the scalp hydrated.

Dermatologists may recommend some hair care products, like gel, oils, sprays, etc. to treat dandruff. If the dandruff symptoms appear again, follow the treatment for the long term.

It might be possible that any hair care product can cause an allergic reaction or cause breathing difficulty. Get medical help in such a situation.
Given below are the solutions that treat dandruff.

Ketoconazole Shampoo: This shampoo is formulated to kill the fungi that cause dandruff on the scalp.

Salicylic Acid in Shampoo: Your doctor may prescribe this shampoo to eliminate scaling.

Fluocinolone Shampoo: The symptoms of dandruff can be controlled by using this shampoo, such as flaking, irritation, and itching.

Selenium Sulfide Shampoo: Such products contain antifungal agents but they can change the color of your hair and scalp too. Use the shampoo as you are prescribed.

Tar-based Shampoo: The use of coal tar slows down the removal of skin cells on the scalp. But the use of such products may lead to discoloration of hair or make your scalp more light-sensitive.

Pyrithione Zinc Shampoo: These shampoos contain antifungal and antibacterial agent zinc pyrithione.

Your doctor will guide you on how long you should use shampoo to treat dandruff.

Lifestyle and Home Remedies

The following steps can help to prevent or treat dandruff:

Avoid Excessive use of Hair-styling products as they can leave more oil on the scalp and lead to buildups on your hair:

Spend a little time in sunlight as it helps to control dandruff and minimize the symptoms, itching, flaking, etc. But do not stay long in sunlight as harmful UV rays can cause skin damage.

Try to get good nutrition that provides certain types of vitamins, zinc, and fats to maintain hair health.

Manage stress levels because stress can impact your overall health and put you at high risk of developing diseases and conditions. Stress can also trigger dandruff.

Follow a hair and scalp care routine to control the oil on the scalp. A massage can help to loosen the flakes and also prevent dandruff. Having a drier scalp means you need to shampoo less frequently.

Tea tree oil is also beneficial to treat dandruff but you should ask a dermatologist before using it.

Brush your hair often.

In case of any concerning signs and symptoms, you need to reach out to a certified dermatologist.