Diabetes Type 1

Overview of Diabetes Type 1

Type 1 Diabetes Meaning in Urdu

ٹائپ ون ذیابیطس ایک ایسا مرض ہے جس میں جسم کا مدافعتی نظام لبلبے میں انسولین بنانے والے سیلز کو ختم کرنا شروع کر دیتا ہے۔ ان سیلز کو بیٹا سیلز کہا جاتا ہے۔ یہ مرض زیادہ تر بچوں اور نوجوانوں کو متاثر کرتا ہے۔ ذیابیطس ٹائپ ون کی علامات میں منہ کی خشکی، تھکاوٹ، اسہال، قے، بار بار پیشاب آنا، وزن میں کمی، اور اچانک موڈ میں تبدیلی شامل ہیں۔ پانی کا کم استعمال، وزن میں کمی، اور جسمانی چوٹ اس مرض کی بنیادی وجوہات ہیں۔ طبی ماہرین کے مطابق اس مرض سے بچاؤ بہت مشکل ہوتا ہے۔

Type 1 Diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes is a chronic illness that is characterized by increased blood sugar levels. In diabetes type 1, there is either no or limited production of insulin. Insulin is the hormone that helps to control blood glucose levels in your body.

In people with diabetes type 1, beta cells of the pancreas that have to produce insulin are destroyed by the action of the immune system. Though we don’t know what exactly causes your immune system to destroy insulin-producing cells, a combination of environmental and genetic factors is considered to be responsible.

The condition can affect people of all ages but is more common in children or young adults. Diabetes type 1 accounts for 5-10% of total diabetes cases and is relatively less common than type 2 diabetes.

Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Type 1

Here are some of the common symptoms of type 1 diabetes:

  • Frequent urination
  • Extreme thirst
  • Fatigue and lack of energy
  • Unintended weight loss
  • Feeling constantly hungry
  • Blurred vision
  • Bedwetting in children
  • Irritability

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Types of Diabetes Type 1

When it comes to the type 1 diabetes causes, the body's immune system is to be blamed here. When your immune system starts destroying insulin-producing cells, it comprises the production of insulin in your body. This is simply an auto-immune disorder. Certain environmental factors and virus attacks can also result in altered immune responses.

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Risk Factors of Diabetes Type 1

Here are some prominent risk factors for type 1 diabetes. These include:

  • Genetics - Type 1 diabetes can be in your genes
  • Family - Having type 1 diabetes in your family can also increase your chance of suffering from the disease.
  • Age - Younger adults and children have an increased chance of suffering from type 1 diabetes.

Complications of Type 1 Diabetes

Some of the complications associated with type 1 diabetes include:

  • Cardiac Problems: Suffering from type 1 diabetes can increase your risk of suffering from cardiac health problems. These include angina, heart attack, heart stroke, atherosclerosis, and hypertension.
  • Nephropathy: Another complication associated with diabetes includes kidney damage. Diabetes can result in end-stage kidney damage that may require treatments like dialysis and kidney transplant.
  • Eye Damage: By damaging the blood vessels of the retina, the condition can lead to potential damage to your eyesight (diabetes retinopathy).
  • Foot Damage: Another common complication associated with type 1 diabetes is foot damage. Compromised blood supply to your foot area can result in easy bruising and poor healing.
  • Neuropathy: Nerve damage is also a serious complication of diabetes. This can result in a tingling sensation and numbness in the body extremities. Nerve damage can further give rise to problems like erectile dysfunction, digestive health problems etc.
  • Pregnancy Complications: Another complication associated with diabetes type 1 is pregnancy complications such as stillbirth, miscarriages, and congenital birth defects.
  • Hypoglycemia: Sometimes when there is enough insulin present in your body for too long then it can result in an extremely low level of glucose in your body.

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Prevention

Currently, there are no known ways to prevent the onset of diabetes type 1. However, the use of certain immunosuppressants can delay the onset of the disease.

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Diagnosis

Diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is made possible through a series of tests. Due to overlapping symptoms of diabetes type 1 and 2, there is still a chance of misdiagnosis. Here are some of the common tests used for diabetes diagnosis.

  • Blood Sugar Test: Blood sugar testing can be either done as a fasting blood sugar test or random blood sugar test. This tells your physician about your existing blood sugar level.
  • Hemoglobin A1c: This is also known as the glycated hemoglobin test and provides a measure of your blood sugar level over 2-3 months.

These test results tell your physician to make a diagnosis. To further differentiate between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, additional tests are performed. These include:

  • Urine Test: The urine test tests the presence of ketones in your urine which is a key feature of type 1 diabetes.
  • Diabetes Antibody Panel Test: This is another test specific for type 1 diabetes and tests for the presence of autoantibodies in your blood.

Treatment of Diabetes Type 1 | When to Consult a Doctor

Here are some of the common treatment options that can help to live well with diabetes type 1.

1- Insulin

Insulin injections are the most favorable treatment option that helps to control blood sugar levels artificially. Here are the different types of insulins that are commonly administered for diabetes type 1 sufferers.

  • Short term (regular) insulin (Humulin H and Novolin R)
  • Rapid-acting insulin
  • Long-acting insulin
  • Intermediate-acting (NPH) insulin

3- Lifestyle Changes

Diabetes management also depends upon lifestyle modifications. Here is how what you can do in this regard:

  • Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Make wise food choices especially when it comes to carbs
  • Stay physically active
  • Make blood sugar level monitoring habit
  • Quit smoking and alcohol consumption

3- Transplantation Treatment

This treatment approach focuses on reviving your body’s ability to produce insulin. This can be done by transplanting the damaged cells of the pancreas or whole pancreas that are responsible for normal insulin production.

Doctors to treat Diabetes Type 1

Last updated on Tuesday 25/10/2022

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Dr. Ehsan Ashraf Makki

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Dr. Makki Diabetic CenterRs 2000

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Dr. Zia Ullah Khan

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Taj Medical Complex (TMC)Rs 1500

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Dr. Muhammad Shahid

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Dr. Muhammad Shahid Consultant ClinicRs 1500

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