Diabetes Type 2

Overview of Diabetes Type 2

Type 2 Diabetes Meaning in Urdu

ٹائپ ٹو ذیابیطس ایک دائمی مرض ہے جس کی وجہ سے جسم انسولین کو مناسب طریقے سے استعمال نہیں کر پاتا۔ عمر میں اضافے کی وجہ سے اس مرض کے خطرات میں بھی اضافہ ہوتا ہے، تاہم یہ مرض بچوں کو بھی متاثر کر سکتا ہے، لیکن وہی بچے ذیابیطس ٹائپ ٹو کا شکار ہوتے ہیں جن کا وزن زیادہ ہوتا ہے۔ اس مرض کی وجہ سے پیاس زیادہ لگتی ہے، نظر دھندلا جاتی ہے، تھکاوٹ کا احساس رہتا ہے، بھوک زیادہ لگتی ہے، اعضائے مخصوصہ کی فنگل انفیکشن کے خطرات بڑھ جاتے ہیں، اور وزن کم ہونے لگتا ہے۔

Type 2 Diabetes, also known as adult diabetes chronic illness is characterized by increased blood sugar levels. In diabetes type 1, there is either you don’t produce enough insulin or your body cells are unable to use the produced insulin i.e., insulin resistance.

Insulin is the hormone that is responsible for controlling blood sugar levels. In people with diabetes type 2,  two things are mainly responsible for this life-long condition. It can be either due to insufficient insulin production from cancer. Other than this your body's inability to respond to the produced insulin can be the leading cause of the disease.

Diabetes type 2 accounts for 90-95% of total diabetes cases. The condition can affect people of all ages but people who are overweight or obese have an increased risk of suffering from this. Lifestyle choices are particularly important when it comes to the onset of type 2 diabetes.

Doctors Treating Diabetes Type 2

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Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes Type 2

Here are some of the common symptoms of type 2 diabetes:

  • Frequent urination
  • Extreme thirst
  • Fatigue and lack of energy
  • Feeling constantly hungry
  • Blurred vision
  • Numbness or tingling sensation in your hands and feet
  • Easy bruising and long healing time
  • Unintended weight loss

Types of Diabetes Type 2

Causes of Diabetes Type 2

There are two main causes of type 2 diabetes:

  • Insulin Resistance: Inability of body cells to respond to produce insulin. This reduced insulin sensitivity can result in a constantly higher level of glucose in your bloodstream.
  • Insufficient Insulin Production: Over time damage to the cells of the pancreas can reduce the production of insulin.

Risk Factors of Diabetes Type 2

Here are some prominent risk factors for type 2 diabetes. These include:

  • Family history of type 2 diabetes
  • >45 years of age
  • Being overweight or obese
  • History of gestational diabetes
  • Race (American Indians, Pacific Islanders populations are at greater risk)
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Alcohol intake
  • High blood pressure
  • Being stressed
  • Suffering from heart diseases
  • Being prediabetic (a condition characterized by high blood sugar levels)
  • Darker skin areas
  • PCOS

Complications of Type 2 Diabetes

Some of the complications associated with type 2 diabetes include:

  • Cardiac Problems: Suffering from type 2 diabetes can increase your risk of suffering from cardiac health problems. These include angina, heart attack, heart stroke, atherosclerosis, and hypertension.
  • Nephropathy: Another complication associated with diabetes includes kidney damage. Diabetes can result in end-stage kidney damage that may require treatments like dialysis and kidney transplant.
  • Eye Damage: By damaging the blood vessels of the retina, the condition can lead to potential damage to your eyesight (diabetes retinopathy).
  • Foot Damage: Another common complication associated with type 2 diabetes is foot damage. Compromised blood supply to your foot area can result in easy bruising and poor healing.
  • Neuropathy: Nerve damage is also a serious complication of diabetes. This can result in a tingling sensation and numbness in the body's extremities. Nerve damage can further give rise to problems like erectile dysfunction, digestive health problems, etc.
  • Pregnancy Complications: Another complication associated with diabetes type 2 is pregnancy complications such as stillbirth, miscarriages, and congenital birth defects.
  • Hypoglycemia: Sometimes when there is enough insulin present in your body for too long then it can result in an extremely low level of glucose in your body.



You can delay the onset of type 2 diabetes by following good lifestyle practices. These include:

  • Maintaining a healthy body weight
  • Making wise dietary choices
  • Doing enough physical activity
  • Working on stress management
  • Good sleep hygiene
  • Quit smoking or alcohol consumption
  • Keeping a check on your risk factors


Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is made possible through a series of tests. Due to overlapping symptoms of diabetes type 1 and 2, there is still a chance of misdiagnosis. Here are some of the common tests used for diabetes diagnosis.

  • Blood Sugar Test: Blood sugar testing can be either done as a fasting blood sugar test or a random blood sugar test. This tells your physician about your existing blood sugar level.
  • Hemoglobin A1c: This is also known as the glycated hemoglobin test and provides a measure of your blood sugar level over 2-3 months.

Treatment of Diabetes Type 2 | When to Consult a Doctor

Here are some of the common treatment options that can help to live well with diabetes type 2.

1- Lifestyle Changes

Diabetes management also depends upon lifestyle modifications. If followed properly then you can even reverse the symptoms. Here is how what you can do in this regard:

  • Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Make wise food choices especially when it comes to carbs
  • Consume enough fiber in your diet
  • Eat a diet rich in protein
  • Manage stress
  • Stay physically active
  • Quit smoking and alcohol consumption
  • Make blood sugar level monitoring a habit
  • Stick to the treatment plan

2- Medications

Diabetes medications can also help with the management of diabetes. Here are some of the commonly prescribed diabetes medications.

  • Metformin (lower blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity)
  • Sulfonylureas (increases insulin production)
  • Meglitinides (increases insulin production)
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists (reduce blood glucose level)
  • DPP-4 Inhibitors (reduce blood glucose level)
  • SGLT-2 Inhibitors (improves sugar expulsion from the body)
  • Thiazolidinediones (increase insulin sensitivity)

Note: Consult your doctor before taking any medications

3- Insulin

Insulin is not always required in the case of type 2 diabetes. This is advisable for patients who don’t produce enough insulin.

In case of any concerning signs and symptoms, you need to visit a certified diabetologist