About more than 300 medical conditions that may cause dwarfism. Among them, the most common condition is skeletal dysplasias. It is a genetic condition caused by abnormal bone growth. It underlies the disproportionate dwarfism. The following conditions are involved in skeletal dysplasia.
At the time of birth, the cartilage of infants transforms into a harder bone known as achondroplasia.
Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder that mainly affects the arms and leg bones. It can be identified as the following signs of the disease.
- A normal trunk of a body
- Difficult to move extremely short arms and legs
- A large forehead
It is a rare medical condition in which two copies of mutated genes are inherited from the parents. This results in very short bones and poorly developed rib cages. Other complications associated with it are scoliosis (bone problems), breathing difficulty, and suffer from spine constriction (spinal stenosis)
Children with this disorder mostly die at the time of birth or during infancy, because of breathing problems.
2. Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Congenital(SEDc)
Like achondroplasia, it is a genetic mutated disorder that causes a short torso, spine, arms, and legs. These regions do not grow as much, but usually develop hands, feet and a head of typical size.
People with SEDc may experience a range of health complications, including
- Spine and hip problems
- Foot deformities
- Cleft palate
- Joint diseases
SEDc may change the structure of facial bones that look flat.
3. Diastrophic Dysplasia
It is due to a gene mutation. It mainly affects cartilage and bone development, causing very short arms and legs and short stature.
Diastrophic Dysplasia people mainly have spine deformities known as hitchhiker’s thumbs. This changes the shape of the thumbs.
It often develops joint pain, mobility issues, and breathing problems since childhood. Along with it, scoliosis, clubfoot, or difficulty moving usually a diseased person feels.
Dwarfism also occurs due to malnourishment and metabolic disorders. Some of them are given below:
- Organ failure due to the inability to produce hormones or metabolize nutrients
- Malnourishment or lack of sufficient food, resulting in growth problems
- Insufficient levels of certain hormones, particularly human growth hormone (HGH)
All of the above are secondary causes of dwarfism. It means they are not genetically produced and may be reversible with early detection and prompt treatment.