Overview of Epilepsy

Epilepsy Meaning in Urdu

مرگی ایک اعصابی بیماری ہے جس کی وجہ سے دماغ اپنے افعال اچھے طریقے سے سر انجام نہیں دے پاتا۔ اس مرض کے شکار افراد کا رویہ بعض اوقات بہت عجیب ہو جاتا ہے جب کہ کچھ افراد اپنے اردگرد سے بے خبر ہو جاتے ہیں۔ مرگی کا مرض کسی عمر کے افراد کو متاثر کر سکتی ہے۔ اس بیماری کی علامات ہر بار مختلف ظاہر ہوتی ہیں کیوں کہ مرگی کا دورہ کبھی تو کچھ سیکنڈز میں ختم ہو جاتا ہے تو کبھی کچھ دیر کے لیے بازؤں یا ٹانگوں کے کھنچاؤ کا سامنا کرنا پڑتا ہے۔

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that causes the brain to work in an abnormal manner. In this condition, one can have seizures or have periods of unusual behavior, sensations, or sometimes unconsciousness. 

Epilepsy can affect both males and females of any age group. But it mostly occurs in early childhood or after the age of 60 years. The intensity of seizures can vary from patient to patient. Some can have a severe seizure attack while others can merely stare blankly for a few seconds. 

Epilepsy can be treated by medications or in more severe cases, surgery may also be required. In some cases, childhood epilepsy can permanently getaway

What is Epilepsy 

Epilepsy is basically a chronic disease that causes involuntary muscle twitches, jerks, and recurrent seizures. A sudden rush of electricity to the brain is called a seizure. Seizures can be classified as: 

  • Generalized seizure - generalized seizures affect the complete brain   
  • Partial seizure - focal or partial seizures affect only a certain part of the brain

Signs and Symptoms of Epilepsy

Seizures are the most important symptom of epilepsy. The intensity, however, can vary from patient to patient.

Symptoms of Focal/ Partial seizures 

The symptoms of focal or partial seizures can include: 

  • Dizziness 
  • Twitching and tingling of limbs 
  • Change is the sense of taste, smell, sight, hearing, or touch

Complex Partial Seizures 

The symptoms of partial seizures include: 

  • Staring blankly
  • Unresponsiveness 
  • Performing recurrent movements 

Generalized Seizures

These seizures involve the whole brain. They are characterized as:

  • Absence Seizure - in this type one can exhibit the state of a blank stare, doing repetitive movements like blinking, and lip-smacking. he/she may also have a short period of unconsciousness.  
  • Tonic Seizure - this type of seizure causes muscle stiffness. 
  • Atonic Seizures - atonic seizures make you lose muscle control and as a result, you can fall down suddenly.  
  • Clonic Seizures - these seizures involve repeated and jerky movements of arms, neck, and face. 
  • Myoclonic Seizures - these seizures cause a spontaneous twitching in arms or legs.
  • Tonic-clonic seizures - these seizures are also known as “grand mal seizures” and the symptoms include: 
  • Uncontrollable shaking in the body 
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control 
  • Tongue biting 
  • Stiffening of the body 
  • Unconsciousness 

Types of Epilepsy

Seizures of epilepsy can be classified as:

  • Mild Seizure - this is more difficult to recognize and may only last for a few seconds which makes it harder to diagnose. 
  • Stronger Seizure - this type of seizure can cause spasms and un-willed muscle twitches. It can last for a duration of a few seconds to several minutes.

During seizures, some people can become unconscious and may have no memory of it happening.  

Causes of Epilepsy

A seizure is a sudden electric current to the brain. It can be triggered by: 

  • Insufficient sleep 
  • Some prevailing illnesses or fever 
  • Stress 
  • Too much bright or flashing lights 
  • Consumption of caffeine, alcohol, medicines, or drugs 
  • Skipping meals and overeating 

Identifying the trigger is not always easy and usually, it’s a combination of multiple factors. 

Is Epilepsy Hereditary? 

Epilepsy can run in families but the chances of inheriting it from your parents are often low.

What are the Causes of Epilepsy?

The causes of epilepsy may vary and for every 6 out of 10 patients, the cause cannot be determined. Some possible causes of epilepsy are: 

  • Some vascular disease 
  • A limited supply of oxygen to the brain 
  • Having a brain tumor or a cyst in the brain 
  • Dementia or Alzheimer
  • Some serious illnesses or prolonged fever 
  • A traumatic brain injury 
  • Scarring on the brain after the brain injury 
  • Exposed to some prenatal injury, brain malfunction, or lack of oxygen at birth
  • Some genetic or developmental disorder
  • Some neurological disease

Risk Factors of Epilepsy

Possible risk factors for epilepsy are: 

  • Age - the onset of epilepsy is more common in children and older adults 
  • Family History - although the chances of epilepsy passed from parents are very low, this could be a possible risk
  • Head Injuries - Head injuries can also cause episodes of epilepsy 
  • Brain Infections - infections like meningitis can also increase the chances of epilepsy

Health Complications 

Possible reasons for having a seizure are: 

  • High fever 
  • Head injury/head trauma 
  • Extremely low levels of blood sugar 
  • Going cold turkey on alcohol 

Epilepsy affects more men than women and is a lifelong condition. Through some supportive medication, it can be managed.  



  • Get yourself and your child vaccinated
  • Maintain a healthy lifestyle to lower the chances of stroke and heart disease 
  • Stay healthy during pregnancy 
  • Quit smoking and alcohol


A seizure is the strongest indicator of epilepsy. If you suspect you have had a seizure, consult your doctor immediately. 

Your doctor will first diagnose the disease based on your medical history and symptoms. A neurological examination will also be performed. Your doctor will perform tests and neurological examinations to rule out other conditions that cause a seizure.  

Imaging tests to diagnose the disease can include: 

  • CT Scan 
  • MRI 
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)
  • Single-photon emission computerized tomography 
  • EEG - this is the most common test that is used to diagnose epilepsy

Epilepsy is usually diagnosed if the seizures have no apparent reason

Treatment of Epilepsy | When to Consult a Doctor

Your doctor will recommend a treatment based on the severity of symptoms. Sometimes medications, surgery, or therapy can help you lead a healthy life. 

Possible treatment options include: 

  • Anti-epileptic (anticonvulsant, antiseizure) drugs: these medications are given to reduce the number of seizures you are having. These medications should be taken as prescribed. 
  • Vagus nerve stimulator - this is an electric device that is placed on the chest under the skin. It electrically regulates the nerve that runs through your neck. This also prevents seizures. 
  • The ketogenic diet - following a high fat, low carbohydrate diet also yields positive responses from people who do not show any significant improvement through medication.
  • Brain surgery - this is done as a last resort and in this process, the part of the brain causing the disease is removed or altered. 

In case you exhibit any concerning signs and symptoms for epilepsy, consult a medical professional as soon as possible.