Eye Infection

Overview of Eye Infection

Eye Infection Meaning in Urdu

آنکھوں کی انفیکشن ایک عام طبی علامت ہے جو کہ بہت سے لوگوں کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ آنکھوں کی انفیکشنز بیکٹیریا، فنگس، اور وائرسز کی وجہ سے لاحق ہوتی ہیں۔ اس انفیکشن کی وجہ سے آنکھوں کا رنگ گلابی یا سرخ ہو جاتا ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ پپوٹوں کی جِلد پر پھنسیاں بھی نمودار ہو جاتی ہیں اور آنکھوں کے درد اور خارش کا بھی سامنا کرنا پڑتا ہے۔ بڑوں کی نسبت بچوں کو آنکھوں کی انفیکشنز کا زیادہ سامنا کرنا پڑتا ہے کیوں کہ وہ آنکھوں کی حفاظت کے لیے اقدامات نہیں اٹھا پاتے۔

Eye infections also known as (Aankh Kay Paputay Ka Dana/آنکھ کے پپوٹے کا دانا) occur when harmful microorganisms bacteria, fungi, and viruses invade any part of the eyeball or surrounding area. This includes the clear front surface of the eye (cornea) and the thin, moist membrane lining the outer eye and inner eyelids (conjunctiva).

Eye infections can be bacterial, viral, or fungal that is affected any part of the eye. It can be relieved by antibiotics, eye drops, etc.

Signs and Symptoms of Eye Infection

Some of the common signs and symptoms of eye infections are as follows:

  • Red-eye
  • Pain
  • Eye discharge
  • Watery eye
  • Dry eyes
  • Light sensitivity
  • Swollen eye
  • Swelling around the eye
  • Itching
  • Blurry vision

Common signs of an eye infection may include:

  • Pain in the eye
  • A feeling that something is in the eye (foreign body sensation)
  • Increased sensitivity to light(photophobia)
  • Yellow, green, bloody, or watery discharge from the eye
  • Increasing redness of the eye or eyelids
  • A grey or white sore on the colored part of the eye (iris)
  • Fever with no other cause
  • Blurred or decreased vision

Infection can be developed in the eye from irrigation, such as getting a small amount of a chemical in the eye. Infection can also occur after a minor eye injury or a small scratch on the cornea. If untreated, some types of eye infections can damage the eye very quickly.

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Types of Eye Infection

If you‘ve noticed some pain, swelling, itching, or redness in your eye, people are likely to have the following types of eye infection.

  • Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis)

It’s an infection of your conjunctiva and usually gives your eyes a pink tint. Pink eye can be caused by bacteria or viruses, although sometimes individuals may get it from an allergic reaction or irritants. It’s common to get pinkeye when people have a cold. In adults, it is most commonly caused by a virus, and in children, it is most likely bacterial.

  • Keratitis

This is an inflammation of your cornea that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites in water. It’s a common problem for people who wear contact lenses.

  • Stye

It can crop up as painful red bumps under your eyelid or at the base of your eyelashes. People get stye when the oil glands in their eyelid or eyelashes get infected with bacteria. These are similar to a Pimple and are not contagious.

  • Fungal Eye Infections

It‘s rare to get infections from a fungus, but they can be serious if not treated on time. Many fungal eye infections happen after an eye injury, especially if your eye was scraped by pointed or sharp things, like a stick or a thorn. People can also get one if you wear contacts and don’t clean them properly.

  • Uveitis

This is an inflammation of the middle layer of the eye, called the uvea. It can be caused by certain viruses like herpes but is more commonly linked to autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. Before deciding on the best treatment for infection, a doctor will need to look at the eye and may also take a tissue or fluid sample.

Causes of Eye Infection

Infectious conjunctivitis is one of the most common causes of pinkeye worldwide. There are many causes of infectious conjunctivitis which is usually classified as viral, bacterial, or fungal.

Some of the most common causes of serious eye infection include:

  • Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome (OHS)

Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection of the lungs that results from inhaling spores. Most of the time, the infections do not cause symptoms and a person recovers on its own. Rarely, the fungus transfers to the retina and causes infection.  Due to this, it damages the retina which is similar to macular degeneration. It also ruptures the central part of the field of vision.

  • Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea

Both are common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can also cause conjunctivitis. The infection enters the eye either directly through genital fluids such as semen or rubs the eyes accidentally after touching the infected genitals.

  • Herpes Simplex

This is a virus that mainly causes skin disease (cold sores) or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Herpes viruses can cause the infection of the eye by touching an active lesion (cold sore or blister) and then touching the eye.

Herpes infections in the eye tend to infect the top layer but they can cause pitting and ulceration of the cornea. Chronic herpes infection, which is uncommon, can cause acute retinal necrosis (ARN), particularly in men. This causes major destruction of retinal tissue and causes dramatic damage to vision. Herpes simplex keratitis is a major cause of blindness worldwide.

  • Shingles (Herpes Zoster, Varicella Zoster)

Shingles are the reactivation of the virus that initially causes chickenpox. The sores known as shingles are infectious and can cause chickenpox in others. They can also cause ocular infection if you touch the eyes after touching a sore.

  • Bacterial Keratitis

This is an infection of the cornea by common bacteria found on the skin and in the mouth and nose. Normally, these bacteria can't penetrate the outer layer of the eye and cause only conjunctivitis.

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Risk Factors of Eye Infection

There are many things that can increase your risk of suffering from an eye infection. Some of these risk factors include:

  • Exposure to Allergens: Exposure to eye allergens is an important risk factor for eye infections. It may include pollen, smoke, perfumes etc.
  • Poor Hygienic Conditions: If you don’t maintain good hygiene, you have an increased chance of suffering from eye infection. Touching our unclean hands and using unclean issues or towels can be the reasons triggering your eye infection.
  • Contact Lenses Poor Usage: Wearing contact lenses for extended periods of time can increase your risk of suffering from eye infection.
  • Eye Makeup: Using substandard eye makeup products and sharing them can also put you at risk of an eye infection.

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Diagnosis

Ophthalmologists and optometrists are skillful to identify the various eye infections based on:

  • The appearance of the surface of the eye and the retina
  • The infection affects one or both eye
  • Patient’s medical history

Doctors use different lighted devices for the inspection of the cornea and retina visually. If the infections cause pus or discharge from the eye, the microbe culture test is recommended to identify the microorganism.

Microbe Culture Test: A doctor takes a small sample of tissue or fluid from the eye and examines it under a microscope for analysis.

Along with it, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Confocal Microscopy are the advanced and rapid forms of diagnostic tests for the identification of microbes.

Treatment of Eye Infection | When to Consult a Doctor

An eye infection can affect one or both eyes. Even though medication is necessary for the treatment, there are various home remedies that can help you manage eye symptoms and treat the eye infection. Following are some important home remedies. However, make sure to consult your doctor before opting for it. 

  1. Breast Milk or Colostrum

Eye infections can affect newborn babies as well. Breast milk is quite effective in treating the symptoms of eye infection in newborn babies. Colostrum has a high level of antibodies that can help fight infections and may help alleviate conjunctivitis in newborn babies. 

  1. Essential Oils

Essential oils such as rosemary, peppermint, and tea tree oil have antimicrobial properties. Therefore, they help in combating infections and preventing them. 

  1. Honey

Honey is one of the ancient remedies to treat eye infections such as blepharitis, keratitis, and keratoconjunctivitis. Honey has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, hence, it may help relieve eye infections. 

  1. Green Tea Bags

Bioactive compounds are present in the extracts of green tea. Normally green tea bags help soothe your eyes and reduce eye swelling. But, there is no scientific evidence yet that it’ll help with eye infections or not so be cautious. 

  1. Turmeric 

Curcumin is the main bioactive compound in turmeric. It has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties that can help in alleviating the symptoms associated with eye infections. More research is however needed for more promising results. 

  1. Warm Compresses

This is one of the most effective remedies for the treatment of conjunctivitis and other eye infections. Heat is helpful in reducing the pain in the eyes and can also improve blood circulation. 

  1. Saline Solution 

Homemade saline solution is also one of the effective ways to get rid of an eye infection. The solution rinses the eye and is good for irritated, inflamed, and itchy eyes. All you need to do is to mix a teaspoon of salt in 1 cup of water. Boil it and allow it to cool. Once cooled use this solution to rinse your eyes with it. You can do this treatment twice daily for better results. 

  1. Avoid Contact Lenses

People wearing contact lenses have a high chance of suffering from an eye infection. So, if you suffer from an eye infection make sure to avoid contact lenses. 

  1. Avoid Sharing Towels/Handkerchiefs 

Eye infection is a contagious disease and the bacteria or virus causing can be easily transmitted by sharing towels or handkerchiefs. 

  1. Vitamins or Supplements 

Today essential nutrient or mineral deficiency is one of the common conditions. This in turn can make you suffer from an eye infection. Research shows that vitamins A, C, and E can be beneficial for maintaining good eye health. 

Mostly, an eye infection takes a few days to a week to cure completely. However, if you need quick recovery, you need to visit your doctor who will prescribe the appropriate medication for your condition. 

 

Doctors to treat Eye Infection

Last updated on Tuesday 25/10/2022

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