Hepatitis A

Overview of Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A Meaning in Urdu

ہیپاٹائٹس اے جگر کا ایک انفیکشن ہے جو کہ ہیپاٹائٹس اے وائرس کی وجہ سے لاحق ہوتا ہے۔ یہ وائرس خون اور پاخانے میں پایا جاتا ہے۔ ہیپاٹائٹس اے  ایک متعدی مرض ہے جو کہ آسانی کے ساتھ ایک فرد سے دوسرے شخص میں منتقل ہو سکتا ہے۔ اس بیماری کی بنیادی علامات میں تھکاوٹ، متلی، پیٹ درد، کالا پیشاب اور آنکھوں کی پیلاہٹ شامل ہے۔ ہیپاٹائٹس اے بہت زیادہ لمبے عرصے کے لیے کسی شخص کو متاثر نہیں کرتا۔ اس بیماری سے بچاؤ کا سب سے بہترین طریقہ یہ ہے کہ بر وقت ویکسین لگوائی جائے۔

Hepatitis A is a contagious liver infection that is caused by the hepatitis A virus. This is an acute or short-term type of hepatitis and usually requires no treatment. 

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. This happens due to exposure to chemical toxins, excessive alcohol usage, some infection, or immune diseases. Viruses are the main culprits for hepatitis cases. 


According to a survey report by the World Health Organization, each year globally, 1.4 million people are affected by it. One in every 20 Pakistani is affected by this disease. This highly contagious virus spreads through contaminated food or water. This virus, however, is not very harmful and usually goes away on its own. 

Signs and Symptoms of Hepatitis A

Usually, young children under the age of 6 show no symptoms at all whereas older children, teens, and adults typically develop some mild symptoms. These may include: 

  • You may develop flu-like symptoms. Like having a feverish body, fatigue, and body pains
  • Light-colored stool 
  • Dark-colored urine 
  • Abdominal pain 
  • Sudden and unexpected weight loss 
  • Jaundice 

Under normal circumstances, it takes about 15-50 days for the symptoms to show after being exposed to the disease. 

Types of Hepatitis A

Causes of Hepatitis A

You can contract hepatitis A after being exposed to HAV. Consuming contaminated food or water can make you fall prey to this disease. Once you have been exposed to this disease, it gets mixed up in your bloodstream and affects the liver. This virus causes inflammation and swelling of the liver.  

Close personal contact with an infected person can also cause you to have it. A person having hepatitis A  can easily pass it on to other people. 

Spreading of Hepatitis A 

Hepatitis A can be transmitted in the following ways: 

  • Consuming food prepared by an infected person 
  • Consuming food that is prepared by someone who doesn’t follow good hygiene habits
  • Eating sewage-contaminated raw fish 
  • Drinking polluted water 
  • Be in close contact with an infected person

The contagious period of this virus ends after one week of you showing visible symptoms. 



Risk Factors of Hepatitis A

Although it is a contagious disease, certain factors can increase your vulnerability to this disease. These factors may include: 

  • Living with people infected with Hepatitis A - if you are a caregiver or live in a place with poor sanitation standards and a lack of clean drinking water can make you more vulnerable. 
  • Alcohol Consumption -  excessive alcohol consumption and injection of illegal drugs also increase the chances of this disease.
  • Close Personal Contact - close contact with an infected person can also expose you to this viral infection. 
  • HIV Positive - being HIV positive is also one of the reasons for the widespread of this disease.   
  • International Traveling - traveling to countries where the sanitation conditions are low can cause you to have hepatitis.
  • Blood Clot Disorders - having blood clot disorders like Hemophilia can also make you have this disease.



Simple prevention measures can stop the transmission of this disease. Some of these may include: 

  • Follow a good standard hygiene routine 
  • Washing hands regularly 
  • Washing vegetable 
  • Avoid eating raw fish


Your general physician will confirm the presence of this virus in your body by conducting some blood tests. Your doctor will also check for high levels of liver enzymes. The blood tests can include: 

  • IgM (Immunoglobulin M) Antibodies - after being exposed to this virus, your body starts making these. These antibodies stay in your bloodstream for about 3-6 months. 

  • IgG (Immunoglobulin G) Antibodies - these antibodies show when the virus has stayed in your body for some time. These are protection against hepatitis A. If you test positive for these and not for IgM, it means you had hepatitis A. 

Treatment of Hepatitis A | When to Consult a Doctor

There is typically no medication for the treatment of Hepatitis A. Although your doctor may suggest supportive care. Periodic check-ups and blood tests to analyze the performance of the liver are also recommended. 

Some simple measures like getting a sufficient amount of rest, consuming a healthier and soft diet, and avoiding alcohol. Drugs and smoking can also help you lead a healthy life. 

Can Hepatitis A develop any Complications?

Although this disease is not very harmful in some rare cases, hepatitis can lead to acute liver failure. This complication mostly occurs in people who already have some underlying medical conditions like chronic liver diseases. 

With proper medical assistance, complete recovery in case of liver failure can also be treated. 

What is the outlook of the vaccine for this disease?

The vaccine is extremely effective and grants 95% immunity from this disease. A vaccine is extremely recommended in the following cases: 

  • Travelers traveling to places where there is a high incidence of hepatitis A
  • People with a blood clotting problem 
  • People who deal with infected people 
  • People who suffer from long-term liver diseases