Kidney Stones

Overview of Kidney Stones

Sometimes when our body has too much of a certain type of waste material and not enough fluid, this waste material starts sticking up together in the kidney.

Signs and Symptoms of Kidney Stones

Our kidneys have the basic duty to remove waste material and fluid from the blood and make urine. Sometimes when our body has too much of a certain type of waste material and not enough fluid, this waste material starts sticking up together in the kidney. These solid masses are known as kidney stones.

These stones typically develop in these parts:

  • Along the urinary tract
  • Ureters
  • Bladder
  • Urethra

Although not fatal, this condition is extremely painful. The type of stone formed determines the cause of it. 

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Types of Kidney Stones

This condition is extremely painful and usually occurs in one side of your back or abdomen. And sometimes it can reach the groin area. Some other symptoms of kidney stones can include:

  • Blood in urine
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Discolored or urine with a foul smell
  • Fever or chills
  • Frequent need to urinate
  • Urinating very small amounts of urine

Sometimes when you have very small sized kidney stores, they might not cause any pain and pass out through the urinary tract.

Why do kidney stones need to be treated immediately?

Our urinary tract is a small and delicate passage. Sometimes the stones can be too large to pass through it smoothly. This can cause irritation and pain in the ureter. Sometimes the stone may block the flow of the urine. Obstruction in the urinary tract can lead to severe kidney infection and kidney damage.

Causes of Kidney Stones

There are many different types of kidney stones which include:

Calcium stones

Calcium stones are the most common type of stone that occurs in the human body. Eating high-oxalate foods like peanuts, chocolate, beets, spinach, and potato chips increases your chances of developing these stones. These stones are basically made of calcium phosphate or maleate.
Eating less-oxalate foods and more calcium-containing foods can prevent the formation of these stones.

Uric acid stones

These types of stones occur more frequently in men than in women. Usually, the people with gout disease or people taking chemotherapy sessions are more prone to uric acid stones.
Consuming a diet that is high in purine increases the risk of developing this stone. High purine food includes fish, shellfish, and meats.


Women already having some urinary tract infections are more vulnerable to this type of stone formation. Struvite kidney stones occur as a result of some kidney infection. They are large in the formation and cause urinary obstruction.
Struvite stones can be prevented by treating the underlying infection.


These stones are rare and can occur in both men and women who suffer from a genetic disorder, known as Cystinuria. In this type of stone, an acid that naturally forms in the body - cystines - leaks from the kidneys into the urine.

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The biggest cause for developing a kidney stone is making less than 1 liter of urine per day. Infants with kidney problems usually develop kidney stones however this issue most commonly occurs among individuals aged between 20 and 50 years.

A family history of kidney stones is also a possible factor. Some other risk factors include:

  • Drinking very less amount of fluid
  • Being overweight
  • A diet rich in proteins, salt, or glucose
  • Gastric bypass surgery
  • Suffering from hyperparathyroid condition
  • Calcium absorption conditions like inflammatory bowel diseases
  • Taking medications like triamterene diuretics, antiseizure drugs, and calcium-based antacids


Sufficient consumption of fluid is the key to avoid any such condition. Substituting your water for:

  • some ginger ale
  • lemon-lime soda
  • fruit juice

can also increase your fluid consumption. Eating a good balanced diet is also a key factor in living a healthy life.

Treatment of Kidney Stones | When to Consult a Doctor

Kidney stones are diagnosed through a series of health history assessment and physical examination.

Some other tests can include:

  • blood tests for calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, and electrolytes
  • blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine to assess kidney functioning
  • urinalysis to check for crystals, bacteria, blood, and white cells
  • examination of passed stones to determine their type

The following tests can rule out obstruction:

  • abdominal X-rays
  • intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
  • retrograde pyelogram
  • ultrasound of the kidney (the preferred test)
  • MRI scan of the abdomen and kidneys
  • abdominal CT scan

Doctors to treat Kidney Stones

Last updated on Friday 21/10/2022


Dr. Tashbeeb Gulzar

Nephrologist | MBBS, MD

National Hospital & Medical CenterRs 3000

Hameed Latif HospitalRs 3000


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Dr. Muhammad Mohsin Riaz

Nephrologist | MBBS, FCPS

Iqra Medical ComplexRs 2500


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Highly Recommended


Dr. Muhammad Salman Rehman

Hypertension Specialist, Nephrologist | MBBS, FCPS, SCE Nephrology

Faisal Hospital (Lahore)Rs 2500


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