Kidney Stones

Overview of Kidney Stones

Kidney Stones Meaning in Urdu

گردوں کی پتھری ایک نہایت تکلیف دہ بیماری ہے، اس بیماری کی وجہ سے خاص طور پر پیشاب کرتے وقت تکلیف کا سامنا کرنا پڑتا ہے۔ جب گردوں میں منرلز اور سالٹ اکھٹے ہو جاتے ہیں اور خارج نہیں ہوتے تو پھر ان میں پتھری بن جاتی ہے۔ غیر متوازن غذا کے استعمال، موٹاپے، اور کچھ ادویات سمیت سپلیمنٹس کے استعمال کو گردوں میں پتھری کی بنیادی وجہ سمجھا جاتا ہے۔ گردوں میں پتھری بننے کی وجہ سے پیشاب کی نالی کا کوئی بھی حصہ متاثر ہو سکتا ہے اور یہ پتھری مثانے کو بھی متاثر کر سکتی ہے۔

Our kidneys have the basic duty to remove waste material and fluid from the blood and make urine. Sometimes when our body has too much of a certain type of waste material and not enough fluid, this waste material starts sticking up together in the kidney. These solid masses are known as kidney stones. 

These stones typically develop in these parts: 

  • Along the urinary tract 
  • Ureters 
  • Bladder 
  • Urethra  

Although not fatal, this condition is extremely painful. The type of stone formed determines the cause of it.

Signs and Symptoms of Kidney Stones

This condition is extremely painful and usually occurs in one side of your back or abdomen. And sometimes it can reach the groin area. Some other symptoms of kidney stones can include: 

  • Blood in urine 
  • Vomiting 
  • Nausea
  • Discolored urine with a foul smell 
  • Fever or chills 
  • Frequent need to urinate 
  • Urinating very small amounts of urine

Sometimes when you have very small sized kidney stores, they might not cause any pain and pass out through the urinary tract. 


Types of Kidney Stones

There are many different types of kidney stones which include: 

Calcium stones

Calcium stones are the most common type of stone that occurs in the human body. Eating high-oxalate foods like peanuts, chocolate, beets, spinach, and potato chips increases your chances of developing these stones. These stones are basically made of calcium phosphate or maleate. 

Eating less-oxalate foods and more calcium-containing foods can prevent the formation of these stones. 

Uric acid stones  

These types of stones occur more frequently in men than in women. Usually, people with gout disease or people taking chemotherapy sessions are more prone to uric acid stones.

Consuming a diet that is high in purine increases the risk of developing this stone. High-purine food includes fish, shellfish, and meats.  


Women already having some urinary tract infections are more vulnerable to this type of stone formation. Struvite kidney stones occur as a result of some kidney infection. They are large in formation and cause urinary obstruction. 

Struvite stones can be prevented by treating the underlying infection. 


These stones are rare and can occur in both men and women who suffer from a genetic disorder, known as Cystinuria. In this type of stone, an acid that naturally forms in the body - cystines - leaks from the kidneys into the urine. 

Causes of Kidney Stones


Risk Factors of Kidney Stones

The biggest cause for developing a kidney stone is making less than 1 liter of urine per day. Infants with kidney problems usually develop kidney stones however this issue most commonly occurs among individuals aged between 20 and 50 years.  

A family history of kidney stones is also a possible factor. Some other risk factors include: 

  • Drinking very less amount of fluid 
  • Being overweight 
  • A diet rich in proteins, salt, or glucose 
  • Gastric bypass surgery 
  • Suffering from a hyper parathyroid condition 
  • Calcium absorption conditions like inflammatory bowel diseases 
  • Taking medications like triamterene diuretics, antiseizure drugs, and calcium-based antacids



Sufficient consumption of fluid is the key to avoiding any such condition. Substituting your water for: 

  • some ginger ale 
  • lemon-lime soda 
  • fruit juice 

It can also increase your fluid consumption. Eating a well-balanced diet is also a key factor in living a healthy life.



Kidney stones are diagnosed through a series of health history assessments and physical examinations. 

Some other tests can include: 

The following tests can rule out obstruction:

  • Abdominal X-rays
  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
  • Retrograde pyelogram
  • Ultrasound of the kidney (the preferred test)
  • MRI scan of the abdomen and kidneys
  • Abdominal CT scan

Treatment of Kidney Stones | When to Consult a Doctor

Why do kidney stones need to be treated immediately? 

Our urinary tract is a small and delicate passage. Sometimes the stones can be too large to pass through it smoothly. This can cause irritation and pain in the ureter. Sometimes the stone may block the flow of urine. Obstruction in the urinary tract can lead to severe kidney infection and kidney damage.

Treatment of kidney stones includes:

  • For pain relief - pain killers 
  • For infection - antibiotics 

Your urologist will recommend treatment depending on your current situation and the type of stone you are having.

Surgical procedures to remove a kidney stone 

In cases where medication does not help remove the stone, your doctor could also suggest some procedures like: 

Lithotripsy - in this procedure, sound waves are used to break down large stones so that they can easily pass through the urinary tract. This procedure could be somewhat uncomfortable and require mild anesthesia. This process can cause bruising on the abdomen and back and bleeding around the kidney and other nearby organs. 

Tunnel Surgery - in this process, the surgeon removes the stones by making a small incision in your back. This procedure is required under the following conditions: 

  • The stone is causing kidney damage 
  • It has grown too large to pass
  • It is causing extreme and unmanageable pain  

Ureteroscopy - if the stone is located in your ureter or bladder, your doctor might use an instrument known as ureteroscopy to remove it.