Liver Cirrhosis

Overview of Liver Cirrhosis

Liver Cirrhosis Meaning in Urdu

یہ بیماری ایک لمبے عرصے کے لیے جگر کو متاثر کرتی ہے کیوں کہ اس کی وجہ سے جگر پر زخم بن جاتے ہیں۔ جگر پر زخم بننے کی وجہ سے وہ اپنے افعال درست طریقے سے سر انجام نہیں دے سکتا۔ اس بیماری کو آخری اسٹیج کی بیماری بھی کہا جاتا ہے کیوں کہ یہ ہیپا ٹائٹس کے بعد جگر کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ اس بیماری کی وجہ سے آنکھوں اور جِلد کی پیلاہٹ، قے میں خون آنا، جِلد کی خارش، ٹانگوں کی سوزش، اور جنسی خواہشات میں کمی کا سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے۔

Liver cirrhosis is late-stage damage to the liver that is often due to several other liver diseases such as hepatitis and too much alcohol consumption.

Every time the liver is injured it tends to repair itself. In an attempt to repair the liver scar tissues form. As the disease continues to progress more and more scar tissues form which can then lead to liver damage. Liver cirrhosis is a serious disease that can lead to severe health complications. Thus on-time diagnosis and proper treatment are needed to control the severity of the damage.


Signs and Symptoms of Liver Cirrhosis

Most of the time, cirrhosis does not show any signs or symptoms. But some common signs and symptoms of liver cirrhosis are as follows:

  • Easy bleeding and bruising
  • Nausea
  • Loss of appetite
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Swelling in your legs, feet, and ankles
  • Itchy skin
  • Fatigue
  • Jaundice
  • Spider-like blood vessels on the skin
  • Loss of sex drive, increase in breast size ad testicular atrophy in men
  • Irregular periods due to menopause in women
  • Confusion
  • Slurred speech
  • Drowsiness

Types of Liver Cirrhosis

Causes of Liver Cirrhosis

Given below are the causes of liver cirrhosis:

  • Chronic alcohol abuse
  • Viral hepatitis
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Iron buildup in the body
  • Accumulation of fat in the liver
  • Accumulation of copper in the body
  • Genetic digestive disorder
  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
  • Inherited disorders of sugar metabolism (glycogen storage disease)
  • Autoimmune hepatitis or liver disease due to the immune system
  • Destruction of bile ducts
  • Infections such as syphilis or brucellosis
  • Hardening and scarring of the bile ducts
  • Medications such as methotrexate or isoniazid

Risk Factors of Liver Cirrhosis

Given below are the risk factors for liver cirrhosis:

Binge Drinking

Too much alcohol drinking can increase the risk of liver cirrhosis.


If a person is overweight then they are at a greater risk of developing liver cirrhosis.


Hepatitis is also a risk factor for liver cirrhosis.

Complications of Liver Cirrhosis

Liver cirrhosis can give rise to the following health complications:

Portal Hypertension

A person might suffer from the slow flow of blood through the liver. It can increase the pressure on the veins and the person might suffer from high blood pressure in the veins.

Swelling in the Lower Limbs

Due to the increased flow of blood through the veins, the fluid can accumulate in the legs. It can also be due to the accumulation of albumin in the body.

Spleen Enlargement

Portal hypertension can lead to swelling of the spleen. All the white blood cells and platelets can also cause swelling of the spleen. The reduced number of white blood cells can be the first sign and symptom of cirrhosis.


The high blood pressure in the veins can redirect the blood to flow through the smaller veins. It can cause additional pressure on these small veins which can lead to severe bleeding.

This type of bleeding can severely be life-threatening.


A damaged liver is unable to produce the right number of blood cells and the body is highly vulnerable to infections.


In case the body is already suffering from a lack of nutrients then cirrhosis can lead to severe weakness and sudden weight loss.

Toxin Buildup

The main task of the liver is to get rid of all the toxins in the body. All this toxin buildup can then damage the functioning of the brain. This can cause confusion and drowsiness.


When the liver is unable to get rid of the bilirubin, it can lead to jaundice. Jaundice is a liver disease that is due to the overaccumulation of bilirubin in the body.

Bone Disease

Bone health and strength are also affected by liver cirrhosis.

Liver Cancer

People who have liver cirrhosis are at a greater risk of liver cancer.



The following are the preventive measures for liver cirrhosis:

  • Quit drinking alcohol if you have cirrhosis
  • Make sure to consume a healthy and balanced diet
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Reduce any chances of hepatitis 


Early-stage liver cirrhosis often shows no signs or symptoms. Commonly it is detected through a blood test or during checkups. Some of the tests that are recommended for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis are as follows:

Lab Tests

Your doctor might recommend some lab tests to monitor the functioning of the liver such as LFT or liver function tests. Furthermore, you might also be screened for the excess amount of bilirubin and viral hepatitis.

Based on these test results the doctor might then assess the underlying cause of cirrhosis.

Imaging Tests

These tests provide real-time footage of the liver. Magnetic Resonance Elastography is a commonly recommended test for this purpose. Some other visual tests such as MRICT scan, and ultrasound might also be recommended.


Your doctor might take a sample of your liver tissue to assess the extent of the liver damage during a biopsy test

Treatment of Liver Cirrhosis | When to Consult a Doctor

Given below are some treatments that are recommended by your doctor for liver cirrhosis:

To Control the Liver Dependency

Too much drinking can lead to liver damage. Thus your doctor might recommend a therapy program to control alcohol addiction.

Weight Loss

People who have liver cirrhosis because of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease can maintain a healthy weight to control the disease's spread.

Medications for Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a common risk factor for liver cirrhosis. Thus your doctor might recommend some medications to treat hepatitis.

Treatments for Complications of Liver Cirrhosis

Some of the given below treatments are recommended to control the complications because of liver cirrhosis:

Fluid in the Body

Too much fluid buildup in the body can then lead to swelling of the lower limbs. A low-sodium diet and certain medications can help to prevent the disease's severity and spread. In some instances, the doctors might also recommend invasive procedures to remove excess fluid from the body.

Portal Hypertension

Your primary healthcare advisor might recommend some medications to control the excessive pressure on the blood vessels of the liver.

In case the person has developed varices, these medicines will help to reduce the chances of excessive bleeding which might then lead to death.

In a worst-case scenario, the person might also need the insertion of a small tube such as a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. It is placed to reduce the additional pressure on the veins of the liver.


Your doctor might recommend some antibiotics to treat various infections such as influenza and pneumonia.

Hepatic Encephalopathy

Medicines are often prescribed to reduce the toxin buildup in the body because of liver damage.

If you observe any concerning signs and symptoms regarding your liver health, you need to consult a certified hepatologist