Male Factor Infertility

Overview of Male Factor Infertility

Infertility is a disease associated with the reproductive system in which a person is unable to achieve normal pregnancy or have children. It is either caused by one partner (male or female) or both. Male infertility is a male sexual disorder means that he is unable to make his female partner pregnant due to some problems in his reproductive system.

Infertility due to male is in almost 20% of cases and 30% is caused by both partners.   

It is very important for males to know that fertility depends on the quality as well as quantity of their sperm. For instance, if the sperms have poor quality or are low in ejaculation, then it will make the conceiving unsuccessful.    

Despite the inability to conceive a child, in 15% of cases, both partners show normal reports of fertility tests.

If you have continuous sex at least twice a week for almost one year and are unable to conceive a child, then it’s better to visit the health care provider.

Signs and Symptoms of Male Factor Infertility

Most infertile men do not have any noticeable symptoms. Symptoms include:-

  • Painful swelling or lump in the testicle area
  • A small volume of ejaculation
  • Erectile dysfunction (difficulty in erection)
  • Reduced sexual desire
  • Enlarged breasts (gynecomastia)
  • Decreased body hair
  • Low sperm ejaculation in semen

Types of Male Factor Infertility

Causes of Male Factor Infertility

Male infertility is caused by many reasons, as follows: -

  • Hormonal Imbalance: low level of pituitary, thyroid, or testosterone hormone
  • Immunological Infertility: antibodies against your own sperm.
  • Abnormal Sperm Function: about two-thirds of infertile men produce poor and low numbers of sperm.
  • Varicoceles: swelling in the scrotum that blocks the sperm flow within the male reproductive system
  • Abnormal Testicles: abnormal growth of testicles due to trauma or infection
  • Chromosomal Disorder: Klinefelter’s syndrome (extra X-chromosome) and cystic fibrosis
  • Toxin Exposure: industrial chemicals or radiations
  • Medications: including steroids, psychiatric medications, and alcohol
  • General Illnesses: malnutrition, cirrhosis, and kidney disease

Only 1% of infertile men have serious medical conditions. However, NO specific cause has been identified in about 50% of the infertile males.


Risk Factors of Male Factor Infertility



You can prevent infertility by avoiding certain things that affect sperm production, such as;

  • Excess alcohol consumption
  • Tight fight underwear (make heat stress)
  • Anabolic steroids
  • Sexually transmitted infection
  • Chemical exposure (toxic)

Are old-aged men more affected by infertility?

Yes! Infertility is more common in old-aged men. Nonetheless,  an old healthy man can still have children but it takes longer to conceive a child. Male infertility has been seen in males aged above the 60s due to low semen volume, a smaller number of sperm production, poor quality sperm, and reduced sexual activity.

It’s absolutely normal for infertile men to have emotional reactions. Discuss the issue with a nearby sexologist or psychological therapist who can help you in diminishing negative feelings by counseling.



Male infertility is diagnosed in a number of steps. Fertility tests are usually performed on both partners together even if only one shows the symptoms.

Don’t take the stress! Get your reproductive system tested!

  1. Medical History: A doctor will ask your medical history including any previous illness, toxins exposures, medications and sexual development.

  2. Physical Examination: To check for vein swelling above the testicles (varicoceles).

  3. Semen Analysis: Also known as, sperm count. In semen analysis, a sample of semen is taken twice on two separate days to check for sperm characteristics; count, volume, structure, shape, acidity, and motility (movement). If one test reports a normal report then the doctor will order you to repeat the test again. Nevertheless, if both test results are normal then no further tests are required.

  4. Blood Tests: To check the hormone level.

  5. Imaging Tests: An ultrasound is performed to examine the inside of testicles and scrotum.

  6. Testicular Biopsy: If very few or no sperms are produced then a testicular biopsy is recommended. In this procedure, a small piece from each testicle is cut and examined under the microscope.

Treatment of Male Factor Infertility | When to Consult a Doctor

Treatment is categorized into three types; fertility improvement, medications, and surgery.

Don’t hesitate to get treatment for fertility! Male infertility has often a treatable condition.

  1. Fertility improvement procedures  

  • Artificial Insemination: Many sperms are put artificially into a cervix entrance or directly into the female uterus where it moves to the fallopian tube.
  • IVT and GIFT: In vitro-fertilization (IVT) and gamete intra-fallopian transfer (GIFT) both involve artificial mixing of sperm and partner eggs and then transfer them into the female fallopian tube.
  • ICSI: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the procedure in which a fertilized egg (under a microscope) is placed into a female uterus.

Disclaimer! Always consult your fertility consultant before taking any medicine as the medicines mentioned here are just for your information.

  1. Surgery

Surgery is performed to fix the varicoceles. Swollen and twisted veins are removed through surgery to improve the semen quality and quantity.