Menopause

Overview of Menopause

 

Menopause Meaning in Urdu

مینو پاز ایسے وقت کو کہتے ہیں جب ایک سال کے بعد عورت کا آخری حیض ختم ہوتا ہے۔ مینو پاز کی کئی علامات ہو سکتی ہیں۔ اس کی پہلی علامت یہ ہے کہ حیض ہر ماہ مختلف اوقات میں شروع ہوتا ہے، اس کے علاوہ رات کے وقت شدید پسینے کا بھی سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے۔ اس کے ساتھ ساتھ نیند کے مسائل بھی لاحق ہو سکتے ہیں جب کہ جنسی خواہشات میں کمی بھی واقع ہو سکتی ہے۔ اس لیے مینو پاز کے دوران کسی گائناکالوجسٹ سے رابطہ ضرور کرنا چاہیئے تا کہ مزید طبی مسائل سے بچا جا سکے۔

Menopause (حیض کا بند ہوجانا) is the time in a female’s life when she no longer remains fertile. This is not a disease or condition but simply a natural stage that marks the end of the reproductive age in females. Menopause is characterized by the stopping of the menstrual cycle.

A female is typically said to be in menopause after she has gone at least 12 months without having periods or menses. This is a permanent state and most women experience it during their 40s or 50s.

Menopause transition (the shift from fertility to infertility) brings hormonal changes along. This natural phenomenon can stretch over several years and can be associated with several health issues in women such as weight changes, urinary incontinence, osteoporosis, etc.

Signs and Symptoms of Menopause

Some of the most common symptoms of menopause are:

  • Period irregularities
  • Mood fluctuations
  • Hot flashes
  • Chills
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Painful sex
  • Sleep troubles
  • Sweating during night
  • Weight change
  • Metabolism alterations
  • Hair growth on the face
  • Reduced hair growth on the head
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Changes in sex drive
  • Urinary incontinence

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Causes of Menopause

Menopause is a natural phenomenon that is caused by the decline in the body’s reproductive hormones. This is a normal part of female aging.

Menopause involves the reduced production of two different types of female reproductive hormones including estrogen (pre-ovulation hormones) and progesterone (post-ovulation hormone). In the absence of these hormones, there is a decline in reproductive potential.

Stages of Menopause

There are three different stages of menopause:

Perimenopause

Perimenopause marks the beginning of your journey menopause journey. During this transition phase, estrogen levels start declining. Many women start experiencing menopause symptoms during this phase. This phase can last for several years.

Menopause

Menopause is the time when a woman actually stops producing eggs and has gone 12 months without having periods. Termination of the menstrual cycle means that a woman will no longer be reproductive for the rest of her life.

Post Menopause

Postmenopause is the stage after menopause. In all these years following menopause, a woman still exhibits the symptoms of menopause for another 5-7 years. However, over time these symptoms become less frequent and less severe.
Further, in the postmenopausal stage females become more susceptible to developing conditions like osteoporosis and heart diseases.

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Risk Factors of Menopause

Every woman who starts menstruating after reaching adolescence hits menopause. This is a natural phenomenon that includes no evident risk factor.

However, in case of complications associated with menopause obesity, sedentary lifestyle, poor calcium intake, and smoking, etc. come as prominent risk factors.

Complications of Menopause

Some of the common complications associated with menopause include:

  • Weight changes
  • Heart diseases such as heart attack
  • Osteoporosis
  • Compromised metabolic function
  • Painful sexual intercourse
  • Emotional changes
  • Atrophic vaginitis (thinning of vaginal walls)
  • Cataracts
  • Periodontal disease (gum diseases)
  • Urinary incontinence

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Prevention

Menopause is a natural condition that can’t be prevented. However, good lifestyle practices can help you with the management of symptoms. These include:

  • Consume a healthy diet
  • Workout properly
  • Keep your bones healthy
  • Have a regulated blood pressure
  • Take proper sleep
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Diagnosis

Menopause is not a disease or condition. Simply the absence of periods for at least 12 months helps with the confirmation of menopause.

Treatment of Menopause | When to Consult a Doctor

There is no treatment for menopause. Certain treatment options can help with the management of conditions. These treatment options include:

Hormonal Therapies

Menopause symptoms management through hormonal therapy falls into two categories.

  • Hormonal Replacement Therapy (HRT): HRT is also known as estrogen replacement therapy or menopausal hormone therapy. This is the most effective treatment for menopause symptom management. Depending upon an individual's requirement, estrogen doses are prescribed to women either in pill form, patch, gel, creams or spray. This therapy is effective for women who have had their uterus removed.
  • Progestin Therapy: Progestin is also known as estrogen-progesterone therapy. This is a combination therapy that uses both estrogen and progesterone hormone doses at once. Women who have their uterus intact can go for this therapy.

Non-Hormonal Therapies

Non-hormonal therapy includes changes to your lifestyle. Some of these include:

  • Dietary Changes: Cut down processed and spicy foods from your diet alongside caffeine. Further, eat foods that are rich in phytoestrogens (plant estrogen).
  • Physical Activity: Physical activity helps you manage the mood changes and deal with the hot flashes well. Further, it also helps you to stay active and put on too much weight.
  • Medications: Several medications such as antidepressants, birth control pills, etc. can help women with menopausal symptoms management

Doctors to treat Menopause

Last updated on Friday 21/10/2022

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