Overview of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis Meaning in Urdu

یہ ایک ایسی بیماری ہے جو کہ ہڈیوں کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ اس کی وجہ سے ہڈیاں کمزور ہو جاتی ہیں اور معمولی سے حادثے سے بھی ٹوٹ سکتی ہیں۔ یہ بیماری زیادہ تر کولہے، ریڑھ کی ہڈی، اور کلائیوں کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ اوسٹیوپوروسس کو ایک خاموش بیماری بھی کہا جاتا ہے کیوں کہ یہ ہڈیوں کو کمزور کرتی ہے اس لیے اس کی علامات تب ظاہر ہوتی ہیں جب ہڈیاں ٹوٹنا شروع ہو جاتی ہیں۔ تاہم اس کی وجہ سے کمر کے درد کا سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ یہ بوڑھے افراد کو زیادہ متاثر کرتی ہے۔

Osteoporosis is a health condition that causes bones to become extremely brittle and fragile.

Even the slightest fall or stretch can cause a fracture. This condition develops over time and is more common among women.   

Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in:

  • Hip bone 
  • Wrist 
  • Spine 

It may occur in other bones like the arm etc. Bone-strengthening exercises can help in treating osteoporosis.  

Precondition of Osteoporosis 

Osteopenia is the pre-stage of osteoporosis. If timely treated, osteopenia does not always lead to osteoporosis. Certain medications and treatments can help you in avoiding osteoporosis. 

Your doctor will identify osteopenia through a bone density scan. This scan determines your bone density. For Osteopenia, bone density is lower than your age group’s healthy individual but not lower enough to be considered osteoporosis. 

Proper diet, treatment, and medication can help you lead a healthy life.

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Signs and Symptoms of Osteoporosis

In the early stages of osteoporosis, there are typically no symptoms. But once this condition has developed, you may notice symptoms like: 

  • A stooped posture 
  • Bone injuries 
  • Weak and brittle nails 
  • Receding gums 
  • Weakened grip strength 

Even if you don't have any signs and symptoms, but have a family history of osteoporosis, talk to your general physician to reduce the risks. 

Types of Osteoporosis

Causes of Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis basically occurs when you start losing bones much faster than your body is capable of generating them. As a result, the bones which are formed are extremely brittle and fragile. 

Women are more prone to this condition, especially after their menopausal stage. As they lose bones more rapidly after this stage. However, this condition can affect individuals of any age group. 

Some of the factors that can majorly increase the chances of osteoporosis are:

  • Family history of osteoporosis 
  • Long-term use of steroids 
  • Long-term use of medication like anti-estrogen or medication that Affects bone strength/ hormonal levels. 
  • Underlying conditions like inflammatory conditions, and hormonal conditions. 
  • Having an eating disorder like anorexia or bulimia 
  • Regular and heavy drinking/ smoking 
  • Low BMI level 
  • Sedentary lifestyle choices 
  • Not sufficient calcium intake 
  • Age factor 

Risk Factors of Osteoporosis

Some of the important osteoporosis risk factors include:

  • Osteoporosis can run in your family, so your genetics is an important risk factor for the disease.
  • Poor nutrition is responsible for keeping your bones healthy enough, making it an important risk factor. When your body isn't getting enough calcium or vitamin D it makes your bones weaker.
  • Lack of physical activity can contribute to increasing your risk of osteoporosis.
  • Tobacco and alcohol are your bone health enemies and osteoporosis risk factors.
  • Hormonal level fluctuations in females, especially lower estrogen levels (either due to menopause, loss of periods, surgical treatments, or cancer therapies) is a well-known risk factor. 
  • The problem with calcium absorption in your body is the risk factor for osteoporosis. 
  • Conditions that contribute to immobility are important disease risk factors. 
  • Medical conditions such as hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, arthritis, hepatitis C and other liver infections increase your risk of suffering from the problem.

Health Complications

The fractures in the hip and spine can cause some serious complications. They may limit your ability to function properly. In some cases, a fracture can occur without even a fall. The bones in your spine can become so weak that you may face:


  • Hunched forward position 
  • Lost height 
  • Back pain 
  • Neck pain



Some better bone health tips that can prevent osteoporosis include:

  • Bearing a healthy weight
  • Consuming a nutritionally sufficient diet
  • Avoiding alcohol and tobacco
  • Ensuring physical activity
  • Adding calcium and vitamin D-rich foods to your diet


If your general physician suspects that you have osteoporosis, he/she may ask you to have a bone density scan (DEXA Scan). This scan is then compared to the bone scan of a healthy individual of the same age group. 

The bone density scan usually takes 10-20 minutes and is a simple, painless procedure.

Treatment of Osteoporosis | When to Consult a Doctor

The treatment of osteoporosis depends upon the condition of your bones. While recommending the treatment, your doctor will consider the following:

  •  Your age 
  • Your gender 
  • The results of your bone density scan 

There is no cure for osteoporosis, but lifestyle changes and certain medications can help you reduce the effects of osteoporosis. Appropriate exercises and increased consumption of vitamin D and Calcium supplements can help you lead a healthy life. 

In case you have any concerning signs and symptoms of osteoporosis, consult a medical professional as soon as possible.