Ovarian Cysts

Overview of Ovarian Cysts

Ovarian Cysts Meaning in Urdu

خواتین میں دو بیضہ دانیاں موجود ہوتی ہیں جو کہ رحم کے دونوں جانب موجود ہوتی ہیں۔ ان بیضہ دانیوں میں یا ان کی سطح پر ایک ایک تھیلی ہوتی ہے جو کہ سیال سے بھری ہوتی ہے۔ سیال سے بھری ہوئی یہ تھیلیاں کسی طبی مسئلے کا باعث نہیں بنتیں اور خود بخود ختم ہو جاتی ہیں۔ تاہم کئی مرتبہ یہ تھیلیاں پھٹ جاتی ہیں اور شدید طبی علامات کا باعث بنتی ہیں۔ اگر ان تھیلیوں کا سائز بہت بڑا ہو جائے تو کچھ خواتین کو جسم کے نچلے حصے میں درد، پیٹ کے بھاری پن، اور پیٹ کے اپھار کا سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے۔

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs in an ovary. Females have two almond-shaped and sized ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. Ovaries release matured eggs in monthly cycles during the reproductive years.

Ovarian cysts are typical. You often experience a little discomfort, and the cysts are not harmful. Within a few months, the majority of cysts disappear without treatment. Yet, ovarian cysts can occasionally rupture or burst open, resulting in serious symptoms.

Prevalence of Ovarian Cysts

Globally, almost 7% of women have ovarian cysts at some point in their lives. 

Signs and Symptoms of Ovarian Cysts

Ovarian cysts are common and usually don't cause any symptoms. However, in some cases, they can cause discomfort or pain. Here are some of the symptoms of ovarian cysts:

  • Pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen on the side of the cyst. The pain may be sharp or dull and may come and go.
  • Bloating or swelling in the abdomen
  • Feeling full quickly when eating
  • Difficulty emptying the bladder or bowel
  • Pain during sex
  • Irregular periods or heavy periods
  • Painful menstrual cramps.
  • Pain in the lower back or thighs

Other conditions can also cause these symptoms, so it’s essential to consult a Gynecologist if you experience any. Your healthcare provider can perform tests to determine if you have an ovarian cyst or another condition.

Types of Ovarian Cysts

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that develop within the ovary. They can be either functional or non-functional.

Functional ovarian cysts are the most common type and form during a woman's menstrual cycle. They are often harmless and typically disappear within a few weeks or months. Functional cysts are of two types:

  1. Follicular Cysts: These form when the sac containing the egg (follicle) doesn't rupture and release the egg.
  2. Corpus Luteum Cysts: These form when the sac releases the egg but then seals back up and fills with fluid.

Non-functional cysts are less common and can be more serious. They occur due to abnormal cell growth and may require medical intervention. Some types of non-functional ovarian cysts include dermoid cysts, endometriomas, and cystadenomas.

Causes of Ovarian Cysts

Ovarian cysts can develop for several reasons. Here are some of the most common causes:

  • Hormonal imbalances: The most common cause of ovarian cysts is hormonal imbalances, particularly an excess of estrogen or a lack of progesterone.
  • Follicle growth problems: In some cases, the follicles in the ovaries may not mature or release eggs properly, which can cause cysts to form.
  • Endometriosis: Sometimes, endometrial tissue grows outside the uterus, forming cysts on the ovaries, resulting in endometriosis
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that causes multiple cysts to form on the ovaries.
  • Pregnancy: During pregnancy, a corpus luteum cyst may form on the ovary. This type of cyst usually goes away after a few weeks.
  • Pelvic infections: Infections in the pelvic area can cause the formation of cysts on the ovaries.
  • Genetics: Some women may have a genetic predisposition to developing ovarian cysts.
  • Medical conditions: Certain conditions, such as hypothyroidism and diabetes, can increase the risk of ovarian cysts.

Most ovarian cysts are benign and don't cause any symptoms or health problems. However, some cysts may require medical treatment if they grow large or cause symptoms such as pain or discomfort.


Risk Factors of Ovarian Cysts

Some of the known risk factors for ovarian cysts include:

  • Age: Women who are in their reproductive years, especially between the ages of 20 and 35, are at a higher risk of developing ovarian cysts.
  • Hormonal imbalances: Hormonal imbalances can affect the regularity of a woman's menstrual cycle, which can increase the risk of ovarian cysts.
  • Endometriosis: Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue that lines the uterus grows outside of it, which can lead to the formation of ovarian cysts.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a condition that causes hormonal imbalances, which can lead to the formation of multiple ovarian cysts.
  • Pregnancy: Women who are pregnant have a higher risk of developing ovarian cysts, as the ovaries continue to produce cysts during pregnancy.
  • Previous history of ovarian cysts: Women who have had ovarian cysts in the past are at a higher risk of developing them again in the future.
  • Family history: Women with a family history of ovarian cysts or ovarian cancer may have an increased risk of developing ovarian cysts.

Most ovarian cysts are benign and don’t cause any symptoms, but in some cases, they can become problematic and require medical attention.

 If you experience symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, or changes in your menstrual cycle, it’s important to consult with your healthcare provider. 

Health Complications Due to Ovarian Cysts

While most ovarian cysts are harmless and don't cause any symptoms or complications, some cysts can cause problems. Here are some of the potential complications of ovarian cysts:

  • Ruptured cyst: A cyst can rupture, causing sudden and severe pain in the lower abdomen. In some cases, a ruptured cyst can lead to internal bleeding, which requires immediate medical attention.
  • Ovarian torsion: A large cyst can cause the ovary to twist, cutting off its blood supply. This can cause severe pain and requires emergency medical attention.
  • Infertility: Some cysts, particularly those associated with endometriosis or PCOS, can interfere with ovulation and cause infertility.
  • Cancer: In rare cases, a cyst may be cancerous. Ovarian cancer often doesn't cause any symptoms until it's in advanced stages, so it's important to have regular checkups and screenings if you're at risk.
  • Complications during pregnancy: If you have an ovarian cyst during pregnancy, it can potentially cause complications, such as premature labor or miscarriage.


It's important to talk to your healthcare provider if you're experiencing symptoms or if you have any concerns about ovarian cysts. They can help you determine if you need any further testing or treatment.




Few things that you can do to reduce your risk of developing them:

  • Birth control: Taking birth control pills can help regulate hormone levels and prevent the development of ovarian cysts. Talk to your healthcare provider about whether this is a good option for you.
  • Regular pelvic exams: Regular pelvic exams can help your healthcare provider detect any cysts early on when they're less likely to cause complications.
  • Healthy diet and exercise: Maintaining a healthy weight and getting regular exercise can help regulate hormone levels and reduce your risk of developing ovarian cysts.
  • Managing underlying conditions: Conditions such as endometriosis and PCOS can increase your risk of developing ovarian cysts. If you have one of these conditions, work with your healthcare provider to manage it effectively.
  • Avoiding smoking: Smoking has been linked to an increased risk of ovarian cysts, so avoiding smoking can help reduce your risk.

Ovarian cysts are common and often benign. If you're experiencing symptoms or if you have any concerns, talk to your healthcare provider. They can help you determine the best course of action.



Ovarian cysts can be diagnosed through various methods, including:

  • Physical Exam: During a pelvic exam, your doctor will feel for any lumps or abnormalities in your ovaries.
  • Imaging Tests: Ultrasound imaging is commonly used to visualize the ovaries and detect the presence of cysts. Imaging tests such as CT scans and MRI may also be used for a more detailed image.
  • Blood Tests: Your doctor may also perform blood tests to check hormone levels, as certain types of cysts can affect hormone production.
  • Laparoscopy: In some cases, a surgical procedure called laparoscopy may be necessary to visualize the cyst and obtain a tissue sample for testing.

Many ovarian cysts are asymptomatic and may not require treatment. However, if you experience persistent pelvic pain, bloating, or changes in menstrual cycles, it's important to see your doctor for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

Treatment of Ovarian Cysts | When to Consult a Doctor

The treatment of ovarian cysts depends on the type and size of the cyst, as well as the age and symptoms of the patient. Here are some of the common treatments:

  • Observation: If the cyst is small and does not cause any symptoms, the doctor may suggest watching it over time to see if it goes away on its own.
  • Medications: Birth control pills may be prescribed to help regulate the menstrual cycle and prevent the formation of new cysts. Pain relievers may also be prescribed to manage any discomfort.
  • Surgery: If the cyst is large or causes severe symptoms, surgery may be required. The type of surgery will depend on the size and location of the cyst. A cystectomy involves removing only the cyst while leaving the ovary intact. In some cases, a salpingo-oophorectomy may be necessary, which involves removing the entire ovary and fallopian tube.
  • Monitoring: If the patient has a history of ovarian cysts or a family history of ovarian cancer, the doctor may recommend regular monitoring with ultrasound and blood tests to check for any changes.

It's important to consult with a Gynecologist for proper diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cysts.