Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Overview of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Meaning in Urdu

یہ بیماری خواتین کے اعضائے مخصوصہ کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ جنسی عمل کے دوران لاحق ہونے والی بیماریوں جیسا کہ جریان وغیرہ کی وجہ سے یہ لاحق ہو سکتی ہے۔ اس بیماری کی وجہ سے پیٹ کے نچلے حصے میں درد، بخار، اعضائے مخصوصہ سے رطوبت بہنا، جنسی عمل کے دوران خون آنا، اور پیشاب کرتے وقت جلن کے احساس کا سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے۔ جو خواتین ماضی میں اس بیماری کا سامنا کر چکی ہوں ان میں اس کے خطرات زیادہ ہوتے ہیں۔ اس کے علاوہ اگر جنسی عمل کے دوران منتقل ہونے والی بیماریوں کے لیے اگر مؤثر علاج حاصل نہ کیا جائے تو اس صورت میں بھی یہ بیماری متاثر کر سکتی ہے۔

The pelvic inflammatory disease also known as pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is one of the common female pelvic inflammatory diseases. PID is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system. This includes the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and pelvis.

PID affects women and the people assigned female at birth (AFAB). Pelvic inflammatory disease is caused when certain bacteria spread from your vagina to the reproductive organs. One of the most common causes of PID is untreated sexually transmitted infections (STIs). But, apart from this, the normal bacteria present in your vagina can also cause PID.

You may feel pain in your lower abdomen due to PID. You might also suffer from unusual leaking or discharge from the vagina. Severe PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive organs. It can also prevent you from getting pregnant. The best way to prevent PID is to get tested for it and timely treatment.

Prevalence of PID

PID or pelvic inflammatory disease has a high prevalence as it has gynecologic, obstetric, and contraceptive-related causes. About 70% of hospital admissions are due to reproductive tract infections. Out of these, 34% are Asians and 31% are from developed countries. 


Signs and Symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

You may not directly recognize that you suffer from pelvic inflammatory disease. The pelvic inflammatory disease symptoms can be mild or even unnoticeable. However, the symptoms of PID can also start suddenly. Some of the major signs and symptoms of PID include:

  • Tenderness or pain in your stomach or lower abdomen (belly)
  • Fever or chills
  • Pain during sex
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Irregular periods of cramping or spotting throughout the month
  • Heavy periods
  • Burning sensation during pee
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge usually green or yellow with an unusual odor

If the PID is due to gonorrhea or chlamydia the symptoms can take from a few days to a few weeks to develop. If the cause is something else, then the symptoms would take several months.

Types of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

PID is mostly caused by a bacterial infection that spreads from your vagina to the other reproductive organs. There are different types of bacteria that cause PID.

In most cases, PID is caused by sexually transmitted infections (STI) such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. Mycoplasma genitalium is another STI that is becoming increasingly responsible for PID. 

In many other cases, it is also caused by the bacteria that are normally living in your vagina. Apart from this, PID can also happen when bacteria get into reproductive organs after childbirth, pelvic surgery, miscarriage, and getting an intrauterine device (IUD).


Risk Factors of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

You are at higher risk of suffering from PID if you

  • Have an STI infection especially chlamydia or gonorrhea
  • Have PID in the past
  • Have multiple sexual partners 
  • Have a partner who has multiple partners
  • Had pelvic surgery
  • Had tubal ligation
  • Are sexually active and younger than 25

Are there any Health Complications Due to PID?

The longer you suffer from PID, the more serious you are likely to suffer from its side effects and health complications. The infection can lead to the formation of scar tissue to form inside your fallopian tubes. The scarring can lead lead to various health issues such as:

  • Chronic Pelvic Pain - One of the most common health issues due to PID is long-lasting pelvic pain. About 20% of people develop chronic pelvic pain.
  • Ectopic Pregnancy - PID can prevent the fertilized egg from moving into your uterus. It can in fact cause the egg to be implanted inside your fallopian tube. People who suffer from PID have a higher risk of suffering from PID as compared to people without PID. 
  • Infertility - Due to PID, the scar tissue blocks the fallopian tube. That is why about 10% of people with PID lose their ability to get pregnant and become infertile
  • Tubo-Ovarian Abscess (TOA) - The TOA is a pocket of an infection in your pelvis. It can make a person extremely sick.




PIDs don’t necessarily have to be due to STIs. It can also be due to normal bacteria traveling from your vagina to your reproductive organs. 

However, most of the time PID is due to unprotected sexual intercourse. Therefore, you need to protect yourself from PID by:

  • Limit the sexual partners
  • Seek medical help if you observe any symptoms
  • Get regular health checkups

Until a person has a health check, you need to wear a condom before engaging in sexual activity. Chlamydia is one of the common causes of STI in young men and it may not show any symptoms. 

You need to get yourself tested if you are worried that you might suffer from STI. You need to visit sexual health specialist or genitourinary medicine specialist for advice. 



If you notice any concerning symptoms of PID, you need to visit your healthcare provider (gynecologist) as soon as possible. The sooner you visit a doctor, the greater the chances of your recovery. 

Your doctor will be able to diagnose if you suffer from PID by:

  • Asking about your medical history, including your general health, sexual activity, and symptoms
  • A pelvic examination to examine your reproductive organs and to check pus (by feeling tenderness)
  • A vaginal culture test to check the bacteria from the vaginal discharge

Some other tests that your doctor can recommend for the Pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosis include:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine test to rule out the urinary tract infection that leads to similar pelvic pain
  • Ultrasound to get a clear picture of your reproductive system
  • Testing for STIs such as gonorrhoea and chlamydia

In some other cases, your doctor may also recommend some specialized tests such as:


  • Endometrial Biopsy - In an endometrial biopsy, a small tissue sample is taken from your uterine lining. A biopsy is then done to test it for diseases.
  • Laparoscopy - In laparoscopy, a small incision is made in your pelvis. A lighted instrument is then used to look more closely at your reproductive organs.

Treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease | When to Consult a Doctor

The pelvic inflammatory disease treatment varies from patient to patient. Your doctor will normally recommend some oral antibiotics that you are required to take for 14 days.

Make sure to take all the medications even if you feel that you are completely healed. The reason is that the symptoms of the disease improve before the infection is completely cured. 

Your doctor would recommend a follow-up after you start taking medicine to check if the treatment is working or not. Symptoms of PID in some people don’t go away even after taking antibiotics. In this case, you need to visit your doctor and receive the antibiotics through IV. 

You may also need this IV medication treatment if you:

  • Are pregnant
  • Feel extremely sick and have a severe infection
  • Have a collection of pus (abscess) in your ovary or fallopian tube

You should avoid sexual intercourse until the PID is cured or use condoms.

(Note: Take medication, only after the doctor’s prescription)

Do you Need Surgery for PID?

Surgery is rare for PID. If you still have abscesses or symptoms even after taking the antibiotics, your doctor might recommend you undergo surgery.