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Periodontal Disease

Overview of Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease (مسوڑے کی بیماری) is a serious infection of the gums. Poor brushing and not taking care of oral hygiene are the primary reasons for this disease. If left untreated this disease can lead to sore and bleeding gums, painful chewing, and can even result in tooth loss.

Signs and Symptoms of Periodontal Disease

Symptoms of periodontal disease mainly depend upon the stages. Some of the common signs and symptoms of periodontal disease are:

  1. Bleeding in gums
  2. Halitosis or bad breath 
  3. The onset of loose teeth 
  4. Painful chewing 
  5. Tooth loss 
  6. Swollen gums
  7. Red or tender gums 
  8. Plaque buildup 
  9. Foul taste in the mouth 
  10. Inflammatory body response 

Types of Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease has the following stages:

Inflammation or Gingivitis 

Periodontitis begins with gingivitis. Gingivitis is a condition in which the person suffers from bleeding gums when they brush or floss. This mostly arises when the person is not paying attention to the matters of dental hygiene or proper oral cleaning. 

Early Periodontal Diseases

In the early stages of this disease, the gums might start to recede. This can lead to small pockets forming between the gums and teeth. Harmful bacteria may inhabit these periodontal packets. The immune system tries to fight this and the gum tissues start receding. 

Moderate Periodontal Disease

In case the early signs of the disease are ignored it can progress into serious bleeding gums. You might start to lose bone support around your teeth. The infection may lead to the onset of inflammatory response in your body. 

Advanced Periodontal Disease 

In this type of periodontal disease, the connective tissue starts deteriorating. People face severe pain while chewing, bad breath, and a foul taste in the mouth in advanced periodontal disease.

Causes of Periodontal Disease

Hundred of different types of bacteria are present in a healthy human mouth. Most of the time they are harmless but if you do not pay attention to your dental hygiene these bacteria can multiply.  

This can lead to plaque buildup. When you do not pay attention to proper brushing the following may happen:

  1. Bacteria tend to multiply which leads to plaque buildup
  2. When you are unable to get rid of plaque through proper brushing, bacteria start to deposit minerals into the plaque. 
  3. This is known as tartar. Tartar formation leads to subsequent bacterial growth towards the root of teeth.
  4. When the body’s immune system reacts it leads to inflammation in the gums. 
  5. Bacterial attack on the teeth roots leads to the disruption of gum attachment. This leads to the formation of a periodontal gap between the gum and root. 
  6. Bacteria continue to grow and thus damage the gums and teeth.

Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease

Given below are some of the risk factors of periodontal disease:

  • Smoking tobacco 
  • Type 2 diabetes 
  • HIV 
  • Leukemia 
  • Hormonal changes in women can lead to gum sensitivity 
  • The use of medicines that disrupt the flow of saliva in your mouth 
  • Genetics or family history 
  • Poor dietary choices 
  • Deficiency of vitamin C 

Periodontal Disease Complications

If left untreated periodontal disease can lead to the following complications: 

  • Painful abscesses
  • Receding gums 
  • Exposures of teeth roots 
  • Risk of complications during pregnancy which can lead to low birth weight as well as preeclampsia
  • Heart issues 
  • Respiratory diseases
  • Diabetes 
  • Receding gums 



Following are some best preventive strategies for periodontal disease:

  • Make sure to brush your teeth twice a day
  • Switch to electrical toothbrushes as they are more effective 
  • Remember to pay attention to your oral hygiene 
  • Schedule visits with your dentist twice a year for professional follow-up on your oral health status 
  • Quit smoking 
  • Refrain from chewing tobacco 
  • Try using fluoride toothpaste 


A routine diagnosis is the best possible way to suspect periodontal disease. The doctor then monitors the status of the disease spread to make sure that the disease does not get any worse. Thus visiting your dentist is inevitable. 

The dentist may use a probe to assess periodontal pockets on the gums. This test is painless. In case the dentist finds plaque or tartar they will remove it under the action of professional cleaning. Some dental x-rays are also required to assess the situation in a more detailed manner.

Treatment of Periodontal Disease | When to Consult a Doctor

Your doctor may suggest the following periodontitis treatment depending upon the status of the disease spread.

  1. Antibiotics 

The dentist may prescribe you antibiotics to control the disease spread and to help meditate the infections. These antibiotics might be in the form of gel, mouthwash, or oral tablets. 

  1. Follow-Up Appointments 

Follow-up appointments are integral in case of dental emergencies. The doctor might ask you to visit twice a week so that he or she can assess your progress properly. 

  1. Surgery  

In case the inflammation persists, the dentist may suggest flap surgery to clean the inaccessible areas of your mouth properly. Under the action of anesthesia, the gums are lifted and the root area is properly cleaned. The gums are then stitched back into the original place.