Patient's Complete Guide to Pilonidal Sinus

Overview of Pilonidal Sinus

Pilonidal sinus forms cysts on the buttocks cleft. It usually appears in males because of their hairy body. It's quite manageable treatment and has less chance of recurrence.

Signs and Symptoms of Pilonidal Sinus

A pilonidal sinus (PNS) also known as (Balon pe mushtimal khala /بالوں پر مشتمل خلا) forms a small sac containing pus or fluid on the cleft of buttocks, by trapping of hair, debris or dirt. This eventually results in the formation of a cyst or abscess.
When the pus hole becomes infected, it may ooze pus and blood that gives the foul smell.
Mostly, PNS affects men more than women because of their hairy body. Also present in people who sit a lot  like cab drivers.

Prevalence of Pilonidal Sinus

Globally, the infection rate of a wound is 1.5%-7%, in which the majority of the population are young, hairy males. Almost 4% chance of the cyst may recur that remain present for 2-3years.

Types of Pilonidal Sinus

At first, People with pilonidal sinus may not feel any kind of symptoms until it becomes inflamed and changes into a cyst or abscess.

The general signs of an infected sinus.

  • Pain (sitting or standing position)
  • Swollen cyst
  • Redness, tender skin around the area
  • Discharge of pus or blood from the cyst
  • Foul smell from draining pus
  • Hair comes out from the blister

Causes of Pilonidal Sinus

Below are the two types of pilonidal sinus, depending upon its severity, persistence and recurrence of the cysts.

Acute Pilonidal Sinus (Rapid-Onset):

It occurs when pain or swelling is increasing day by day and the enclosed pus of a sac may ooze in and around the sinus. This causes pain and stiffness.

Chronic Pilonidal Sinus (Persistent):

In this type, the sinus may reproduce again in 4 out of 10 people after some years. But, pain is not as intense as the acute pilonidal sinus because an infected sac releases some pus. Due to which, a person feels less pain than before. But still, some infection was left at the affected area. This means that symptoms of pain and oozing of pus can stay for a longer time or cause burning until the sinus is removed by surgery.

Risk Factors of Pilonidal Sinus

The exact cause of pilonidal sinus is still ambiguous. Mostly the sinus appears due to the penetration of hair into the skin. Some researchers think that it can be caused by the species of aerobic or anaerobic bacteria that are:

  • Escherichia coli
  • Proteus species
  • Streptococcus
  • Pseudomonas

Other stimulators that may increase the risk of sinus, include:

  • Friction and pressure of the skin
  • Tight clothing
  • Bicycling
  • Long periods of sitting


Here are some of the factors that increase your risk of suffering from the pilonidal sinus:

  • Poor hygiene
  • Being overweight
  • Male gender
  • Inactive lifestyle
  • Excessive body hair

Treatment of Pilonidal Sinus | When to Consult a Doctor

A general physician will do the physical examination of the sinus visually and identify the severity of sinus. As such, a doctor will not recommend the lab tests.

Healthcare Providers

Consult with Best Doctors for Pilonidal Sinus

Dr. Abdul Hameed, Dermatologist

Dr. Abdul Hameed

Dr. Asif Rauf, Dermatologist

Dr. Asif Rauf

Dr. Farrukh Aslam, Cosmetologist

Dr. Farrukh Aslam

Prof. Dr. Azam Bukhari, Dermatologist

Prof. Dr. Azam Bukhari

Dr. Sohail Anjum, General Surgeon

Dr. Sohail Anjum

Dr-sheher Bano, Dermatologist

Dr-Sheher Bano

Dr Syed Afaq Ahmed, Dermatologist

Dr Syed Afaq Ahmed

Dr Ayaz-ud-din, Dermatologist

Dr Ayaz-ud-Din

Dr Shahid Raza Kazmi, Dermatologist
Dr. Momina Zaheer, Dermatologist

Dr. Momina Zaheer

Speciality for Pilonidal Sinus

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