Overview of Polio

Polio Meaning in Urdu

پولیو ایک ایسا مرض ہے جو زیادہ تر بچوں کو متاثر کرتا ہے۔ اس کی وجہ سے بچے ساری زندگی کے لیے معذور ہو جاتے ہیں، جب کہ کچھ بچوں کی موت واقع ہو جاتی ہے۔ پولیو کی بنیادی وجہ ایک وائرس ہے جسے پولیو وائرس کا نام دیا گیا ہے۔ یہ وائرس آسانی کے ساتھ ایک شخص سے دوسرے شخص میں منتقل ہو سکتا ہے۔ پولیو زیادہ تر ترقی پذیرممالک میں بچوں کو نشانہ بناتا ہے، جب کہ ترقی یافتہ ممالک میں اس کا مکمل خاتمہ ہو چکا ہے، تاہم کچھ ترقی یافتہ ممالک میں یہ ابھی بھی پایا جاتا ہے۔

Polio (پولیو) is a severe and life-threatening disease that can cause serious neck injury and can even lead to paralysis, difficulty in breathing, and ultimately death.

Although there have been numerous efforts on the global scale to wipe out poliovirus, parts of Asia and Africa are still struggling with this disease.

Signs and Symptoms of Polio

The signs and symptoms of polio may differ depending on the fact that whether the virus causes paralysis or not.

Non-paralytic Polio

People who develop the symptoms of poliovirus are often in contact with a virus that does not lead to paralysis. Some common signs and symptoms of non-paralytic polio are as follows:

  • Fever
  • Sore throat
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Sever back pain or stiffness
  • Neck pain and stiffness
  • Pain in arms and lower limbs
  • Muscle weakness and tenderness

Paralytic Syndrome

Paralytic syndrome is the most life-threatening form of this disease. It is an extremely rare condition. The initial signs and symptoms of this disease resemble paralytic polio. But there are some additional symptoms of paralytic syndrome that are given below:

  • A sudden loss of reflexes
  • Severe pain in muscles and weakness
  • Loose and floppy limbs

Post-Polio Syndrome

Post-polio syndrome is a cluster of disabling signs and symptoms that commonly affect people who have been living with polio. The common signs and symptoms of post-polio syndrome are as follows:

  • Progressive muscle and joint weakness
  • Pain in the lower limbs
  • Breathing and swallowing problems
  • Sleep apnea and other sleeping issues
  • Decreased tolerance to hot and cold temperatures

Types of Polio

Causes of Polio

Polio can be caused if the person is in contact with someone infected or through contaminated food and water. People who have the virus but do not show the symptoms can also cause the virus to others.

There are three main strains of poliovirus. These strains are

  • Type 1
  • Type 2
  • Type 3

Type 2 and type 3 have been eradicated from the globe but type 3 is still affecting people in Africa and Asia.


Risk Factors of Polio

Children who are younger than 5 years are at great risk of polio. Furthermore, those who haven’t been vaccinated are also at risk of developing this disease.

Complications of Polio

Polio can lead to temporary or permanent muscle paralysis. It can also cause disability, bone deformities and can prove to be fatal.



Polio vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent the onset of this disease.

Polio Vaccination for Children

Children all around the world receive four diseases of polio vaccination at the given ages:

  • Two months
  • Four months
  • Between 6 and 18 months
  • Between the ages of 4 and 6

Polio Vaccination for Adults

In case you were unable to get the polio shots during childhood, you can get three shots in adulthood.

  • First dose at any time
  • A month later second dose
  • Final dose after a period of six months or one year

Allergic Reaction to Polio Vaccination

Polio vaccination can lead to allergic reactions in some individuals. Some signs and symptoms of such allergic reaction to such vaccination are as follows:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Wheezing
  • Irregular heart rhythms
  • Hives
  • Dizziness


Healthcare providers might diagnose this disease if the patient is complaining about stiffness in the neck, abnormal reflexes, and difficulty in breathing and swallowing. To further confirm the assessment, a stool sample, a sample of throat secretions, or CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) is checked.

Treatment of Polio | When to Consult a Doctor

Polio is an untreatable disease. Therefore the treatment method primarily focuses on easing the pain, speeding the recovery process, and preventing further health complications. The treatment plans might include:

  • Pain relievers such as NSAIDs
  • Fluids such as water, juice, or broth
  • Heat to soothe the sore muscles
  • Ventilators to assist the breathing
  • Physical therapies
  • Moderate exercises to prevent deformities and loss of muscle function

In case of any concerning signs and symptoms, you need to visit a certified pediatrician