Overview of Rosacea

Rosacea Meaning in Urdu

یہ ایک جِلدی بیماری ہے جو زیادہ تر چہرے کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ چہرے کی متاثرہ جِلد اس بیماری کی وجہ سے سرخ ہو جاتی ہے اور خون کی شریانیں واضح نظر آنا شروع ہو جاتی ہیں۔ اس بیماری کی وجہ سے جِلد پر دانے بھی ظاہر ہو سکتے ہیں جنہیں جِلد کا ابھار کہا جاتا ہے۔ جِلد کی یہ بیماری کسی کو بھی متاثر کر سکتی ہے۔ تاہم درمیانی عمر کی خواتین کو اس کا زیادہ سامنا کرنا پڑتا ہے۔ اس بیماری کا کوئی علاج موجود نہیں ہے، لیکن کچھ ادویات کی مدد سے اس کی علامات کو کنٹرول کرنے کی کوشش کی جاتی ہے۔

Rosacea also known as (badshanam/ بادشَنام) is similar to acne but a more chronic, incurable skin disease in adults. It affects the centre of the face, especially the nose area. The severity varies with time, which is medically manageable.

It makes red tiny blisters appear with some redness and visible blood vessels on the face. These symptoms cause increased burning of the skin and stay for months to weeks,

Typically the disease affects more middle-aged women than males, particularly those who have fair skin tone.  The treatment of rosacea reduces the symptoms.

Rosacea Prevalence

Rosacea affects almost 5.46% of women and 3.90% of men after the age of 30 years in the general population. The global prevalence and incidence of rosacea are still not defined yet.

Signs and Symptoms of Rosacea

Depending upon the disease symptoms, rosacea can be categorized into the following four types: 

1. Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea (ETR)is also known as subtype 1 in which some symptoms are seen on the face for example:

  • Facial redness
  • Flushing
  • Visible blood vessels
  • Swollen skin
  • Sensitive, dry, rough, and scaly skin

2. Papulopustular (or acne) (subtype 2) in which rosacea mostly damages the skin of middle-aged women. It is mainly related to acne-like cracks and other signs include:

  • Red skin
  • Oily skin
  • Sensitive skin
  • Visibly broken blood vessels 
  • Many small patches on the skin

3. Rhinophyma (subtype 3) is a rare type and is known as the sign of thickening skin, especially on the nose. Mostly, its presence is observed in men. The symptoms which  differentiate this from other subtypes are:

  • Rough skin texture
  • Thick skin is seen on the nose, chin, forehead, cheeks, and ears
  • Large pores
  • Visibly broken blood vessels

4. Ocular rosacea is subtype 4 and its signs and symptoms are:

  • Bloodshot and watery eyes
  • Eyes that feel gritty
  • Burning or stinging sensation in the eyes
  • Dry, itchy eyes
  • Cysts on eyes
  • Diminished vision
  • Broken blood vessels on eyelids

Types of Rosacea

Causes of Rosacea

In this scientific world, many researchers still find the exact cause of rosacea. But, it can be possible due to hereditary, environmental and poor hygiene factors. 

  • Visible Blood Vessels: A person exposed to the sun expands the visible blood vessels on the face which makes the skin red and prominent to other people.
  • Mites: Normally, small harmless mites live on the skin named Demodex folliculorum. Some people are sensitive to mites or produce more bugs than usual. There are too many mites that can irritate the skin. 
  • Bacteria:  The bacteria in the digestive tract are called H. pylori which may increase the digestive hormone gastrin and make flare-like skin.

Factors that stimulate the flares of the skin include:

  • Hot drinks and spicy foods
  • Red wine and other alcoholic beverages
  • Extreme temperatures
  • Sunlight or wind exposure
  • Emotional problems
  • Exercise
  • Multiple cosmetic products
  • Blood pressure medications dilate the blood vessels

Risk Factors of Rosacea

Everyone can have rosacea. But it is more likely to appear in females or if you:

  • Have  fair skin, particularly damaged by UV light of the sun
  • Women are more likely to develop the problem
  • History of severe acne breakouts can be a significant risk factor
  • People from English, Scandinavian, Scottish, and North or Eastern European  backgrounds have an increased risk of suffering from the rosacea
  • Are above 30 age
  • Do tobacco smoking
  • Have a family background of rosacea





There are no specific lab tests conducted for the rosacea diagnosis. The dermatologists usually examine the skin, and ask about its symptoms and family history. The test has been performed to rule out other associated conditions which are: 

These conditions have similar signs and symptoms similar to those of rosacea.

If an individual is experiencing eye symptoms then a doctor may refer the patient to an eye specialist (ophthalmologist) for diagnosis.

Treatment of Rosacea | When to Consult a Doctor

There is no permanent treatment for rosacea but doctors focus on controlling or managing the signs and symptoms. The individuals must take good care of their skin whether the prescription drugs or by taking laser therapy sessions.

The treatment duration may vary based on the types and intensity of the signs and symptoms. 

1. Home Remedies

Before consulting the dermatologist, people with rosacea may try to minimize its effect by applying natural products on the face such as

  • Dilute vinegar cleansing: It is used to remove bacteria from the face.
  • Take 1 part of a regular tablespoon of vinegar and  6 parts of water. 
  • Mix them well.
  • Soak this diluted white vinegar onto the skin. 

Vinegar acts as a natural disinfectant and decreases the yeasts and bacteria from the skin. Ever since vinegar may cause burning to the skin of some people so always take some sample tests before applying it to the skin.

  • Green tea: It also reduces the inflammation of rosacea. It acts as an anti-inflammatory agent. Soak the cotton balls in the green tea and apply it to your face daily.

2. Medications

Currently, new Prescription drugs for rosacea have been introduced to minimize its signs and symptoms. A dermatologist may prescribe the medications on the patient’s skin condition. Sometimes only oral antibiotics may be workable and sometimes to give the drugs in combination. 

 Rosacea medications are administered either orally or topically

  •  Topical Drugs: Cream, gel or lotion is highly recommendable for mild to moderate rosacea such as:
  •  Brimonidine (Mirvaso) 
  •  Oxymetazoline (Rhofade) 

These topical agents constrict the prominent blood vessels on the skin and reduce redness.  Individuals may get results within 12 hours after use. To improve the skin, it applies on the skin regularly.

Other topical products give a moderate effect on the redness and also reduce the pimples of mild rosacea. These drugs include:

  • Azelaic acid (Azelex, Finacea)
  • Metronidazole (Metrogel, Noritate, others) 
  • Ivermectin (Soolantra)

When azelaic acid and metronidazole are prescribed to the patients in combination, it may result in noticeable improvements for two to six weeks.

  • Oral Antibiotics: Dermatologists may prescribe oral antibiotics ranging from moderate to severe rosacea with blisters and pimples such as doxycycline (Oracea, others) 

  • Oral Acne Medications: Oral acne drug is preferable for severe rosacea patients who do not respond to other therapies, a doctor may suggest Isotretinoin (Amnesteem, Claravis, others). It is considered an effective oral acne drug to clear up acne-like blisters of rosacea. 

Note: Do not take isotretinoin during pregnancy because of causing potential birth defects. It’s important not to use any medications without a doctor’s consultation

3. Therapies

Laser therapy and other light-based therapies may suggest to the patients to lessen the redness or visible blood vessels. These therapies require repeated session to maintain the improvised skin.

In case you exhibit any concerning signs and symptoms of rosacea, consult a medical professional as soon as possible.