Tuberculosis or TB (دق/Daq) is a life-threatening infectious disease that mainly damages your lungs. Tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB can also spread to other parts of the body such as the brain and spinal cord. Bacteria causing TB can be easily transferred from one person to another via droplets that are released into the air during coughing and sneezing.
The tuberculosis bacterium mostly attacks a person having a weak immune system due to certain diseases (AIDS, diabetes, liver or kidney damage), chemotherapy and drugs for autoimmune disorders. Due to weak immunity, the patient can’t fight the TB germs. The main hurdle in the eradication of TB is the development of drug-resistant strains of the bacterium. However, it can be treated by taking several types of medications by a doctor’s prescription for a certain period.
Occurrence of Tuberculosis
Pakistan is among the top 20 countries that have a high rate of tuberculosis prevalence and mortality. Pakistan shares a total of 80% of the global burden of tuberculosis. According to WHO, the incidence of tuberculosis in Pakistan is 230 per 100,000. While the estimated prevalence rate is 39 per 100,000. This indicates 410,000 incident cases of tuberculosis and 69,000 TB deaths in Pakistan every year.
As per studies, SINDH has a higher number of cases as compared to other provinces in Pakistan. Mostly, males aged 15 or above are affected by TB as compared to females.