Typhoid Fever

Overview of Typhoid Fever

Typhoid Fever Meaning in Urdu

ٹائیفائیڈ بخار ایک بیکٹیریل انفیکشن ہے جو کہ جسم کے بیرونی و اندرونی اعضاء کو متاثر کرتا ہے۔ اگر اس بیماری کا بر وقت علاج نہ کروایا جائے تو بہت سے شدید طبی مسائل لاحق ہو سکتے ہیں۔ ٹائیفائیڈ بخار ایک متعدی بیماری ہے جو کہ آسانی کے ساتھ ایک شخص سے دوسرے شخص میں منتقل ہو سکتی ہے۔ اگر ٹائیفائیڈ سے متاثرہ کسی مریض کی کوئی چیز استعمال کی جائے تو اس بیماری کے خطرات میں اضافہ ہو جاتا ہے۔ اس بخار کی بنیادی علامات میں سر درد، شدید تھکاوٹ، کھانسی، اور قبض شامل ہے۔

Typhoid fever or ٹائیفائیڈ in Urdu is caused by Salmonella Typhi bacteria. This is a very common disease in developing countries like Pakistan. It usually spreads by contaminated food or water.

Typhoid fever is basically a bacterial infection that, if not treated promptly, starts affecting other major body organs. Sometimes, due to some other underlying medical issues, typhoid can become fatal. Typhoid is a contagious disease and can travel from one person to another.  

The general symptoms of typhoid include high fever, headaches, and body pains followed by diarrhea or constipation. Vaccines for typhoid are also available. Usually, antibiotics are used for the treatment of typhoid fever. 

Are you at risk of developing this condition?

This fever is basically the result of poor sanitation and hygiene habits. 

Children are at greater risk of falling prey to this disease as their immune system is still in the process of development. Most cases of this disease occur in developing and third-world countries. 

People traveling to countries like India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan also have a chance of developing this disease. 

Public health officials in Pakistan are trying their best to contain the outbreak of this condition by launching more vaccine campaigns and making people follow more hygienic practices in the most affected areas. 

High-Risk Areas 

High-risk areas for typhoid fever mainly include developing counties where hygiene standards are not maintained properly. These high-risk areas include: 

  • Indian subcontinent 
  • Africa 
  • South and Southeast Asia 
  • South America 

Vaccines for Typhoid Fever

Although there are vaccines available for this fever, the success rate is not 100%. Recently Pakistan became the first country to introduce the World Health Organization recommended Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine into its routine immunization Program. 

As Pakistan saw a massive outbreak of extensively drug-resistant typhoid, the introduction of this new vaccine is proving quite fruitful.  

Effects of the Bacteria on the Body 

After consuming any fluid or food contaminated by this bacteria, it will quickly go into your digestive system and start multiplying. This will initiate stomach pain, constipation, or diarrhea followed by high fever. 

If this disease is not treated timely, it starts to damage other organs by getting into the bloodstream. Organ damage can lead to serious complications including internal bleeding or internal infections. 

Another common complication of typhoid fever is a hole or perforations in the intestines. This will develop in the third week of the disease. These are some of the life-threatening complications and demand immediate medical attention. 

Some other less common complications of typhoid include: 

  • Inflammation of heart muscles 
  • Inflammation of pancreas 
  • Inflammation of valves and lining of the heart 
  • Kidney or bladder related issues 

 

Signs and Symptoms of Typhoid Fever

The signs and symptoms of typhoid fever develop over time and it usually takes about three weeks to fully show the symptoms of this disease. 

Some early warning signs of typhoid can be: 

  • Fever that starts low and gradually goes up daily 
  • Weakness 
  • Fatigue 
  • Body pain 
  • Headaches 
  • Loss of appetite and decrease in weight 
  • Dry cough 
  • Diarrhea 
  • Abdominal pain 

Some people also develop skin rash or red spots on the skin. In more advanced cases of typhoid, you may become delirious and extremely exhausted to even carry out some routine tasks. 

It’s time to see a doctor 

Timely treatment of this disease is pretty important as its later stages can affect other body organs. So, as soon as you think you have any symptoms of typhoid, immediately consult your doctor. Usually, typhoid fever is treated through a course of antibiotic medication for seven to 14 days. 

In more cases, antibiotic injections can also be prescribed by your doctor. Vaccination is also available for typhoid fever but it is not 100% effective. 

 

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Prevention

  • Getting vaccinated 
  • Abiding any form of raw or uncooked food 
  • Drinking clean, filtered water. Preferably boiled water 
  • Thoroughly cleaning hands 
  • Avoiding any raw fruits and vegetables 

 

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Diagnosis

The rule of thumb for timely treatment is, contact your doctor immediately if you think you are having some signs or symptoms of the disease. 

You should immediately contact your doctor if you feel the symptoms and have recently traveled to the above mentioned high-risk areas.

Usually, your doctor will diagnose this fever by first conducting a blood test, stool, or urine culture. This bacteria is quite difficult to detect, so for confirmation of the fever, sometimes a series of these tests may be required. 

Bone marrow tests give accurate information but it is both; time-consuming and painful. 

 

Treatment of Typhoid Fever | When to Consult a Doctor

If this fever is detected at an early stage, a simple course of antibiotics for a duration of seven to 14 days will suffice. It is observed that a strain of Salmonella typhi bacteria has developed resistance for certain types of antibiotics. This problem is more common in countries where there is a high prevalence of this fever. 

In case you exhibit any concerning signs and symptoms for typhoid fever, consult a medical professional as soon as possible.

Doctors to treat Typhoid Fever

Last updated on Wednesday 02/11/2022

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