Newcastle Disease

Overview of Newcastle Disease

Newcastle disease is a viral infection that is highly contagious and affects millions of birds worldwide. This viral disease is mainly caused by a virus that belongs to the family of paramyxovirus. 

This virus can affect both domestic as well as wild birds. The rate of birds fatalities, as well as morbidity due to this disease, are very high.

Signs and Symptoms of Newcastle Disease

Common signs and symptoms of Newcastle disease are as follows:

  1. Sneezing
  2. Wings drooping 
  3. Partial or complete paralysis 
  4. Swollen eye or neck tissues
  5. Coughing 
  6. Green or white diarrheal discharge 
  7. The sudden death of a bird 
  8. Increased reported deaths in a flock 
  9. Muscles tremors
  10. Egg-laying birds can suffer from a significant drop in egg production
  11. Thin shelled eggs production 

Types of Newcastle Disease

There are three main types of this disease;

  1. Lentogenic or mild
  2. Mesogenic or Moderate 
  3. Velogenic or Very Virulent 

Causes of Newcastle Disease

New castle disease is one of the most common diseases that affect a number of birds globally. The most affected bird species are 

  • Owls
  • Turkeys
  • Geese
  • Ducks
  • Pheasants
  • Partridges
  • Guinea Fowl
  • Emus
  • Rhea
  • Ratities
  • Ostriches

This disease is mainly caused by a para-myxovirus. It is important to note that it is a highly contagious disease.


Risk Factors of Newcastle Disease

Most of the time, people who get infected by this disease only have to suffer from conjunctivitis. The rate of recovery is also speedy and the virus does not stay in the eye fluids longer than four to seven days. Lab workers and people who are highly associated with veterinary are usually the victims of this disease. But there is no current record of humans getting infections after consuming poultry products.



The preventive strategies for Newcastle disease are highly strict. Biosecurity and quarantine are the only possible preventive measures that can stop the rapid spread of this virus. In order to ensure that the flock is in good health, the dead birds should be properly discarded. Area zoning can also help. 




This disease is highly similar to avian influenza. Thus proper diagnostic measures which include laboratory testing are highly crucial for this purpose. One of the preferred measures for the diagnosis of Newcastle disease is virus isolation. 

Virus Isolation

With the help of a cotton-covered stick, the samples are taken from the inside of the bird’s oral cavity. The sample is then tested in the lab. This is one of the widely used methods for new castle disease diagnosis.

Treatment of Newcastle Disease | When to Consult a Doctor

Newcastle disease is a viral infection and thus currently there is no exact cure for this disease. Although most of the time antibiotics are used for this purpose. There are certain vaccinations that are also used routinely to keep the health of the flock intact.