Overview of Endocarditis

Endocarditis is a serious heart condition caused by a bacterial infection on the inner lining of the heart valve resulting in severe complications.

Signs and Symptoms of Endocarditis

Bacteria are everywhere in the environment; some live on the surface of our skin while some enter our body via mouth, nose, or bruised skin and start to reside inside the body. If the bacteria present in the bloodstream infect the heart’s inner lining then it causes inflammation which is called Endocarditis (دل کی اندرونی پرت کی سوزش).

The inflammation of the heart lining is caused by a bacterial infection therefore it is also known as bacterial endocarditis or infective endocarditis. Infective endocarditis grows in a vegetative manner on the heart valves and makes holes in it by secreting toxic enzymes that damage the heart tissues. Complications caused by the leaky or blocked valve are a serious concern and can lead to death if remain untreated.

A person with a healthy heart is less susceptible to endocarditis. The reason being that the normal valve of the heart is resistant to bacterial infection. While if someone has a weak or diseased heart, the risk of endocarditis is there.

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Types of Endocarditis

Signs and symptoms develop over time and are often mild. Most of the symptoms resemble other illnesses therefore endocarditis remains undiagnosed in many cases.

Symptoms might vary in individuals, but you may feel some of the following:

  • Flu, fever, night chills and sweats
  • Unusual heart murmur (an abnormal sound of heartbeat)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Skin rash
  • Decreased appetite and stomach sickness
  • Pain under the left side of the rib cage (due to the enlarged spleen)
  • Urinary blood
  • Weight loss
  • Pale skin with bumps and spots on hands and feet
  • Sore throat, dry or moist cough
  • The wound that won’t heal
  • Pain, redness or swelling

Risk Factors of Endocarditis

Overgrowth of bacteria is considered the leading cause of endocarditis. However, some fungal species are also involved in the development of endocarditis. Our body has natural microflora. But when either bacterial growth in our body becomes out of control or pathogens enter our body, it leads to various problems.

Eating contaminated food and drinking impure water is a major source of getting harmful bacteria inside our bodies. Once the bacteria enter the body, the natural defense mechanism (immune system) activates to start fighting with the germs. People with weak immunity are unable to resist bacterial infection.

Besides eating and drinking some other sources of bacterial invasion in the body are:

  • Gum disease and poor oral hygiene
  • Reused syringes (contaminated needle)
  • Indwelling intravenous or urinary catheter
  • STI (sexually transmitted Infections)



You are more likely to suffer from endocarditis, if you have damaged, diseased or faulty heart valves. But everyone can suffer from endocarditis.

Your chances of suffering from endocarditis increase if you have:

  • Older Age- If you are above 60 years of age, your risk of endocarditis increases.
  • Damaged Heart Valves- Rheumatic fever or infection can scar or damage your heart valves, increasing the risk of the infection.
  • Artificial Heart Valves- Artificial heart valves are more prone to the attack of germs.
  • Implanted Heart Device
  • Congenital Heart Defects
  • Poor Oral Hygiene
  • History of Endocarditis
  • History of Using Illegal IV Drug
  • Long term Use of Catheter

Complications of Endocarditis

In endocarditis, abnormal mass is accumulated in the heart by the clumps of cell pieces and germs. These are vegetative clumps. These clumps can break and travel to the lungs, brain, kidneys, abdominal organs, legs and arms.

Due to this endocarditis can lead to several complications such as:

  • Heart Issues such as damaged heart valve, heart murmur and heart failure.
  • Abscesses (pockets of the collected pus) develop and get accumulated in the lungs, heart, brain and other organs.
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Kidney damage
  • Pulmonary embolism (blot clot in a lung artery)


If you are at a higher risk of developing endocarditis it is extremely essential that you limit any trigger, especially your exposure to any bacterial infection. The same is the case if you have been previously affected by endocarditis.

Following are some ways that you need to opt to reduce your risk of endocarditis:

  • Practice Good Oral Hygiene- You need to take care of your oral hygiene. Don’t let gum disease or abscesses go untreated. Visit your dentist regularly to ensure you are having good oral health.
  • Take Good Care of Your Skin- You need to keep your skin clean. Use antibacterial soap to wash your hands and body to reduce the chances of developing any skin infection. But do not use it on your face. If you have any skin condition you need to consult your general practitioner to have a skincare routine accordingly.
  • Medication- If you are taking any medication such as antibiotics for endocarditis, do not skip them. Research shows that antibiotics are good in preventing endocarditis.

Treatment of Endocarditis | When to Consult a Doctor

Diagnosis of endocarditis includes a physical examination of the heartbeat using a stethoscope and asking about previous medical history.

Diagnostic tests that are conducted to diagnose endocarditis are:

  • Symptoms of infections as mentioned above especially fever over 38.4 degrees celsius.
  • Blood Cultures are obtained to check the presence of microorganisms or bacteria causing
  • Electrocardiogram or ECG (to determine the rate of the heart’s electrical activity).
  • Chest X-ray (to analyze the functioning of lungs and for differentiating endocarditis from other diseases)
  • Transthoracic echocardiogram (to see abnormal heart movements by using ultrasound waves)
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram (a test used to view the heart from the oesophagus when additional information is needed.)
  • Blood culture test (To identify the causative agent: bacteria or fungi)

Doctors to treat Endocarditis

Last updated on Sunday 23/10/2022


Dr. Muhammad Kashif Zafar

Cardiologist | MBBS, FCPS, FCPS

Punjab Institute of CardiologyRs 1500

Omar Hospital and Cardiac CentreRs 1500


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Highly recommended. Very good Doctor.


Dr. Muhammad Saleem Akhtar

Cardiologist | FCPS, MBBS, MCPS

Hameed Latif HospitalRs 3000


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Satisfaction Rate



Highly Recommended


Dr. Riaz Zulqurnain Aslam

Cardiologist | MBBS, DIC

Iqra Medical ComplexRs 2000


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Very supportive doctor, experience was good.

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