Tracheal Stenosis

Overview of Tracheal Stenosis

Tracheal stenosis is a constriction and narrowing of the airway that leads to shortness of breath and scar development in the trachea. It may be congenital and acquired.

Signs and Symptoms of Tracheal Stenosis

Tracheal stenosis also known as (zarf nali ka suhkrna) is defined as the narrowing and constriction of the trachea windpipe. It may lead to shortness of breath. It is majorly developed due to following reasons:

  • Injury to trachea after prolonged intubation
  • Opening of the trachea for operation
  • When the breathing tube is inserted into the trachea

Tracheal Stenosis Prevalence
Tracheal stenosis affects 4-13 % of adults and  1-8 % of neonates after prolonged intubation.

Find the suitable doctor treating this disease

View doctors

Types of Tracheal Stenosis

Following are the most common symptoms which have been observed in tracheal stenosis patients.

  • Breath shortness
  • Lungs inflammation and pulmonary infections
  • Hard to breath
  • Stridor (high pitch audible sound)
  • Fatigue
  • Wheezing
  • Cough
  • Cyanosis (blue lips)
  • Breath shortness (dyspnea)

Causes of Tracheal Stenosis

There are two types of tracheal stenosis based on its condition:

  • Acquired Tracheal Stenosis: It develops later in life. This is caused by an injury or serious illness after birth such as prolonged endotracheal tubes after surgery (tracheostomy).
  • Congenital Tracheal Stenosis: It is a birth defect present since birth. This type may be associated with other genetic syndrome or narrowing of airways because of cartilage malformation.

Risk Factors of Tracheal Stenosis

Normally there are a few significant causes which lead to tracheal stenosis.

  • Placement of the endotracheal tube for a longer time
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Collagen vascular disease
  • Tracheal infections
  • Burns
  • Cancer
  • Autoimmune disease Sarcoidosis
  • Ulcerations (elevates inflammation of tissue with scarring)



Following risk factors that can increase tracheal stenosis.

  • Being overweight
  • Hypertension
  • Heart disease
  • Smoking
  • Diabetes
  • Granulomatosis


Certain preventive measures that are important to control tracheal stenosis and breathing issues are as follows:

  • Pursed lip breathing is for deep and effective breathing and pursed lips as do for the whistle.
  • Slowly breathe through your nose.
  • The use of endotracheal tubes with low-pressure cuffs is carefully inserted to the trachea to avoid unnecessary trauma or any other complications.
  • Sitting in the forward direction to facilitate breathing.
  • Usage of support at your back at standing position.

Treatment of Tracheal Stenosis | When to Consult a Doctor

There are following lab tests that a doctor usually recommends for the diagnosis of tracheal stenosis.

  • X-ray examines the neck and chest blockage.
  • Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan is conducted for a chest examination.
  • Ultrasound to check the air spaces in the trachea.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an alternative test for chest examination but it takes more time.
  • Pulmonary Function Testing is used to measure the effect of stenosis on the breathing rate.
  • Laryngoscopy for larynx (voice box) examination.
  • Arterial Blood Gases Test for measurement of oxygen.
  • Sputum Culture is also performed to check any infection in the lungs.
  • Biopsy is used to diagnose tracheal malignancy or tumour

Doctors to treat Tracheal Stenosis

Last updated on Monday 03/10/2022


Dr. Rana M. Tahir

Physiotherapist |

HM Diagnostic CenterRs 1500


Today’s Slots


Satisfaction Rate



Highly Recommended


Prof. Dr. M. Tariq Sohail

Orthopedic Surgeon | MBBS, Masters in Orthopedics , FRCS , FICS

Doctors HospitalRs 3000


Today’s Slots


Satisfaction Rate



Satisfied with Dr. treatment.


Dr. Shahzad Anver Qureshi

Orthopedic Surgeon | MBBS, FCPS

Masood HospitalRs 2500


Today’s Slots


Satisfaction Rate



Highly Recommended

All Doctors treating Tracheal Stenosis