Overview of Low Testosterone
Low Testosterone Meaning in Urdu
ٹیسٹوسٹیرون کے لیول میں کمی کو ایک طبی مسئلہ سمجھا جاتا ہے جو کہ تب لاحق ہوتا ہے جب ٹیسٹیکلز ٹیسٹوسٹیرون کو متوازن مقدار میں نہیں بناتے۔ ٹیسٹوسٹیرون کے لیولز میں کمی کی کئی وجوہات ہو سکتی ہیں۔ ٹیسٹیکلز کو لگنے والی چوٹ کو ٹیسٹوسٹیرون کے لیول میں کمی کی بنیادی وجہ سمجھا جاتا ہے۔ ٹیسٹوسٹیرون کے لیولز میں کمی کی وجہ سے جنسی خواہشات کم ہو جاتی ہیں اور مردانہ کمزوری کا بھی سامنا کرنا پڑتا ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ ان لیولز میں کمی کی وجہ سے موڈ خوش گوار نہیں رہتا اور تھکاوٹ کا احساس بھی رہتا ہے۔
Low testosterone (Hypogonadism) is a male health condition in which the testes are unable to produce a sufficient amount of testosterone (a male sex hormone) It mostly affects 40% of men over the age of 30 years. The normal levels of testosterone in males vary all over the day based on body mass index (BMI), nutrition, medication, alcohol consumption, age, and illness.
According to the American Urology Association, the amount of low testosterone estimates is less than 300 nanograms (ng) of the hormone per deciliter (dl) of blood. Every 2 in every 100 men has a low testosterone health problem.
Testosterone plays a vital role in men such as:
- Bones and muscles development in males
- Voice deepening, hair growth, and other appearance-related factors
- Sperm production
- Maintain an adequate level of red blood cells
- Sexual-reproductive function
Its production reduces along with the age, but most older men show the symptoms of low testosterone.
Doctors Treating Low Testosterone126 Doctors Available
Dr. Irfan Nazir
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Signs and Symptoms of Low Testosterone
The low testosterone levels symptoms depend on the person's age, ongoing illness, or genetic problems. Below are the common signs of low testosterone of male health problems, but affect a few females.
Erection problem: It is a sign of low testosterone because it makes it difficult to control erections.
Normally, testosterone triggers the penile tissues to produce nitric oxide, which carries out further reactions that cause an erection. If the level gets low, an individual is unable to maintain an erection.
Factors affecting erectile dysfunction:
- Tobacco smoking
- Thyroid-related health problems
- High cholesterol
- Stress or anxiety
- Alcohol abuse
- High blood pressure
Hair loss: Another effect of low testosterone is hair loss occurs in men but is usually considered a natural process of age. That's why it is diagnosed along with other symptoms.
Reduced bone and muscle mass: Good for bone muscle and production of bone tissues. If the level of testosterone drops, an individual may be more susceptible to fractures.
Testicle size reduction: Males having low testosterone feel a softer scrotum than normal and also a reduction in testes size.
Low amount of semen: Semen is an ejaculating hormone released from the penis. It aids in the movement of sperm toward the egg. Testosterone is responsible for semen production. Any reduction in its level may cause fertility issues.
Difficulty in sleeping: A person either feels difficulty in sleeping or staying asleep. Males living with low testosterone also lead towards a severe disorder named sleep apnea in which temporary breathing problems disrupt sleep.
A low desire for sex: Men having low testosterone may feel less desire for sex.
Hot flashes: It is observed in women during menopause. Hot flashes with estrogen level fluctuations are another sign of low testosterone.
A decrease in energy levels: This problem in males may cause fatigue and energy reduction.
Production of body fat: The body fat of Low testosterone deficient men is increased and also results from gynecomastia (enlargement of the breasts).
Changes in mood: Lack of concentration, irritability, and depression are the vital signs of low testosterone health issues.
Types of Low Testosterone
Causes of Low Testosterone
The level of testosterone starts to decrease in a man's body after the age of 30. It's about 1% per year. As it decreases,the effect of low testosterone on males may change the risk of infertility.
Several other potential causes of low testosterone, including:
- External Injury (trauma, head injury, the inadequate blood supply to the testes)
- Infection in the testes (orchitis)
- Cancer chemotherapy
- Metabolic disorders such as hemochromatosis (too much iron in the body)
- Erectile Dysfunction or pituitary gland tumor
- Drugs, such as opioids, hormones used to treat prostate cancer and steroids (such as prednisone)
- Acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) illness
- Alcohol consumption
- Liver Cirrhosis
- Chronic renal (kidney) failure
- Inflammatory diseases like sarcoidosis (a condition that causes inflammation of the lungs and other organs)
- Kallman syndrome (impairment in the development of the hypothalamus, a gland present in the brain that controls many hormones)
- Klinefelter syndrome (a genetic condition in which a male is born with an extra copy of the X chromosome). Also called XXY syndrome
- Elevation of the milk-producing hormone prolactin
- Being overweight or extreme weight loss
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Congenital defect (present at birth)
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Excess of estrogen (usually from an external or environmental source)
- Severe primary hypothyroidism
- Pubertal delay
- Radiation exposure or before brain surgery
Risk Factors of Low Testosterone
Currently, there are no known ways to prevent low testosterone levels in males. However, getting proper nutrition alongside other lifestyle practices can help with condition management.
A doctor observes the level of low testosterone in patients by the signs and symptoms and performs a physical examination. After the keen observation, blood tests may recommend measuring the level of testosterone in male patients. As you know the testosterone level changes throughout the day but is high in the morning that's why doctors prefer to take the measurements in the early morning, around 8.am.
Treatment of Low Testosterone | When to Consult a Doctor
Adoption of Healthy Lifestyle:
If the males are experiencing the symptoms of low testosterone, changing in lifestyle helps to avoid the low testosterone symptoms.
Several measures need to adopt:
- Physical Activities: such as vigorous exercises, heavy lifting, etc
- Healthy diet: For example, Tuna, low-fat milk rich in vitamin D, Egg yolk, Fortified cereals, beans, beef, etc. help to increase the level of testosterone
- It can also be beneficial not to use glucocorticoid medications such as prednisone as well as opioid pain medications
Testosterone Replacement Therapy:
Treating low testosterone is done through testosterone replacement therapy, which is available in different forms:
Intramuscular Injections (into a muscle): Testosterone injection is directly injected into the muscles, for 10 to 14 days.
Testosterone Skin Patches: These are the transdermal patches that are usually applied over the skin of different body parts are the buttocks, arms, back, and abdomen. It is given almost once a day. For example, Androderm.
Testosterone gels: A doctor applies them over the clean dry skin of the upper back and arms. For example AndroGel, and Axiron. Dosing is difficult to adjust, that's why it is available in single-application packages or premeasured pumps.
Caution: It is used with care so that a hormone is not transferred to another person accidentally.
Pellets: These are implanted beneath the skin every two months.
Important Note: Testosterone is available in the form of a pill. According to the best andrologists/sexologist, they believe that it shows a negative effect on the liver if these pills are used on a long-term basis. Other delivery methods can bypass the liver and transfer directly into the bloodstream.
Side effects of Testosterone Replacement Therapy:
The side effects of low testosterone therapy are enlisted below:
- Swelling in the ankles due to mild fluid accumulation
- Prostate stimulation, can cause urinating symptoms such as difficulty in passing urine.
- Breast enlargement or tenderness
- Sleep apnea gets worsening (a sleep disorder that results in frequent nighttime awakenings and daytime sleepiness)
- Reduction in testicles
- Skin irritation (for those patients who are receiving topical testosterone replacement)
- Laboratory abnormalities that may detect with testosterone replacement therapy are:
- Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) elevation
- Red blood cell count elevation
- A decrease in sperm count causes infertility (inability to have children)
Who is at Risk of testosterone replacement therapy?
Testosterone replacement therapy may affect the enlargement of the prostate. An andrologist/sexologist will not allow those males who are diagnosed with prostate cancer. That's why before starting the testosterone replacement therapy, prostate screening is important to carry out.
Other people who should not allow testosterone replacement therapy are:
- A male with an enlarged prostate causes urinary symptoms (difficulty starting a urinary stream)
- A lump on their prostate that is difficult to evaluate
- A PSA measurement above 4
- An elevated number of red blood cells
- Obstructive sleep apnea that has not been treated
- Breast cancer
- Severe congestive heart failure