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Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Overview of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Meaning in Urdu

اس بیماری کی وجہ سے خواتین میں رحم کے نچلے حصے (سرویکس) میں سیلز بننا شروع ہو جاتے ہیں۔ اگر ان سیلز کو ابتدا میں ہی نہ ہٹایا جائے تو یہ کینسر کی وجہ بھی بن سکتے ہیں۔ اس بیماری کے خطرات ان خواتین میں زیادہ ہوتے ہیں جو ایک سے زیادہ لوگوں کے ساتھ جنسی تعلق قائم کرتی ہیں۔ اس لیے غیر محفوظ جنسی عمل کو اس کی سب سے بڑی وجہ سمجھا جاتا ہے۔ طبی ماہرین کے مطابق اس بیماری کی کوئی بھی واضح علامات نہیں ہوتیں۔ عام طور پر خواتین کو یہ بیماری لاحق ہونے کی صورت میں جنسی عمل کے بعد اعضائے مخصوصہ سے غیر معمولی خون آتا ہے۔

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is also commonly known as cervical dysplasia. In this condition, there is abnormal cell growth on the surface of your cervix. Usually, this is a warning sign of a precancerous condition. 

In CIN, ‘Intraepithelial’ stands for abnormal cells present on the surface of the cervical region without spreading to any other surface. ‘Neoplasia’ means abnormal growth of cells. 

Prevalence 

Cervical dysplasia is 75% more prevalent in women who have multiple sexual partners and are sexually active. Infections related to HPV happen 50% of the time between the ages of 15 and 25 in women. 

Signs and Symptoms of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

There are no obvious signs of cervical dysplasia. It is often diagnosed if the patient undergoes a pap smear. The only distinction that may show as a symptom can be vaginal spotting or strange spotting after intercourse.

Types of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Causes of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

The easiest way to get infected with cervical dysplasia and infected with HPV. HPV is spread through sexual contact. In most cases, HPV will be eliminated by the immune system. However, some mutated strains of the HPV are stronger and more likely to affect and infect your reproductive health. Eventually, if the infecting strains survive your immune system there is a likely possibility of infecting your cervical surface.

 You will only have CIN if you are infected by HPV. However, some people despite having HPV are not ever infected with CIN. The reason behind such behavior remains unknown however, some factors may play a role in the spread of cervical dysplasia. 

  • Being over the age of 55 
  • Having a low or weak compromised immune system 
  • Being a chain smoker or regularly smoking cigarettes
Happniness

Risk Factors of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

Some obvious risk factors associated with CIN are often linked with HPV. If not treated immediately it can result in; 

Happniness

Prevention

The best way to prevent CIN is to regularly get tested for HIV and to get a vaccination shot for HPV. HPV shot is most effective before any sexual activity happens. Therefore it is best to get tested for HPV from time to time.

Happniness

Diagnosis

Your primary doctor will be able to detect CIN in your routine pap smear test. It is important to know that observing any form of abnormal cell growth must immediately follow up by colposcopy to observe the affected area. 

If your doctor finds any trace of abnormal cell growth in your cervical region then the next immediate step will be to examine and test the cervix immediately through colposcopy. 

In colposcopy, your doctor will look at your vaginal walls or cervical area, using a colposcope to look for any abnormalities. After that, your healthcare provider will perform a biopsy to remove a small sample of the affected skin area. There might be further DNA tests to detect what kind of HPV is present. 

Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia | When to Consult a Doctor

Treatment depends on multiple options such as a patient’s age, previous medical health history, and treatment preferences. Please be mindful that undergoing cervical treatment can affect your future pregnancies. 

Monitoring abnormal cells 

With low-grade cervical dysplasia, also referred to as CNI 1, you might not exactly need extensive treatment. In most cases, the condition will go away on its own. Only a few cases progress to cervical cancer. You might have to make frequent visits before your doctor sets you clear for not observing any progression in making changes of abnormal cell growth. 

Removing or destroying abnormal cells 

If your case is more severe and there is a high probability of developing into cervical cancer then your doctor will take some treatment procedures. These procedures may include; 

  • Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) - in this procedure, a small electrically charged wire loop to remove the affected tissue. LEP can also be used to remove tissue for further analysis. 
  • Cold Knife Biopsy - this procedure also involved removing a cone-shaped tissue with abnormal cell growth. Initially used as a more preferred form of treatment, with the most recent minimal surgical approach, this method of treatment is only used in severe cases. 
  • Hysterectomy - this procedure involves the removal of the uterus completely. This can become a vital option if the other procedures do not help with the condition.

In case of any concerning signs and symptoms, you need to consult a certified gynecologist as soon as possible.