Overview of Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis Meaning in Urdu

'ایڈینومائیوسیس ایک ایسی طبی حالت ہے کہ جس میں یوٹرس کے اندر کے ٹشو اس کی عضلاتی دیواروں میں چلے جاتے ہیں۔ اس کی وجہ سے زیادہ ماہواری آنے کی شکایات ہو سکتی ہیں۔ اس کے علاوہ ہیٹ کے نچلے حصے کا درد اور ایام سے پہلے بلوٹنگ کی علامات بھی اسی وجہ سے ہو سکتی ہیں'.

Adenomyosis or ‘غَد عُضلہ’ as translated in Urdu, is a medical condition where the inner lining of the uterus breaks into the muscular lining, uterine wall, leading to severe menstrual cramps and feeling of bloatedness during menstruation. This condition can occur across your whole uterine lining or then at a localized spot. 

It is believed that adenomyosis occurs most commonly in middle-aged women and has to do with certain hormones triggering this condition. It may also occur after some surgical procedure, for example, the removal of fibroids in the uterine wall.

As in the case of uterine walls, adenomyosis can also happen in the gallbladder. This involves the thickening of the wall of the gallbladder due to cholesterol deposition forming polyps (abnormal tissue growth) resulting in hypertrophy (thickening of the muscular wall).

Can Adenomyosis Affect Pregnancy?

Infertility is common amongst people having adenomyosis as the muscular wall of the uterus builds up which then eventually blocks the fallopian tubes. Fallopian tubes are tubes within which the sperm fertilizes the egg. Therefore, decreasing the likelihood of pregnancy and chances of fertility. 


Signs and Symptoms of Adenomyosis

You may or may not experience any symptoms associated with adenomyosis. However, if you do, they are as follows:

  • Heavy menstrual bleeding

  • A feeling of bloatedness and abdominal pressure

  • Severe menstrual cramps

  • Longer menstrual cycles than usual

  • Lower back pain

Types of Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis can be classified into three main types based on the regions of the uterine wall affected.

  • Focal Adenomyosis: When one side of the uterine wall is invaded.

  • Adenomyoma: More extensive compared to focal adenomyosis and involves the formation of uterine mass.

  • Diffuse Adenomyosis: It extends all across the uterine lining.

Causes of Adenomyosis

The exact cause behind adenomyosis remains unclear. So far research has indicated that endometrial cells somehow migrate and invade the uterine lining leading to this condition. Another state is that the uterine lining develops into endometrial cells. Other possible causes might have to do with:

  • Hormonal imbalance of estrogen, progesterone, or follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Possible stem cell origins: Stem cells invading the uterine lining leading to adenomyosis
  • Inflammation of the uterine wall after childbirth might break the uterine lining boundary leading to adenomyosis

Risk Factors of Adenomyosis





If you feel you have any of the above-mentioned symptoms of adenomyosis, it is advisable to consult a gynecologist who can carry out a medical evaluation to confirm the diagnosis.

  • A pelvic exam is to determine whether the uterus has enlarged or swollen.
  • A pelvic ultrasound is to closely see the uterine lining and check for any unusual appearance.
  • An MRI Scan confirms the diagnosis of adenomyosis as this scanning technique gives higher-resolution images.

Treatment of Adenomyosis | When to Consult a Doctor

Your doctor might prescribe you certain medicines to alleviate symptoms associated with this condition or advise you to undergo surgery.

  • Anti-Inflammatory Medications: Ibuprofen, to reduce blood flow during menstrual cycle as well as severe cramps.
  • Uterine Artery Embolization: Blocks the supply of blood to the affected area, shrinking the region that underwent adenomyosis.
  • Hysterectomy: When previous interventions do not seem to work, this method is used to surgically remove the entire uterus. This is done in severe cases only.
  • Hormonal Treatments:  To aid in alleviating the symptoms by lessening blood flow as well as pain associated with adenomyosis.

It is advisable to consult a gynecologist if you experience the above mentioned symptoms. Adenomyosis can greatly affect your lifestyle if timely interventions are not followed.