Adenomyosis

Overview of Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis is a condition in which the endometrium lining (inner lining of the uterus) invades the muscular lining (uterine lining) in the uterus. This leads to severe menstrual cramps, heavy blood flow, and feeling of bloatedness.

Signs and Symptoms of Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis or ‘غَد عُضلہ’ as translated in Urdu, is a medical condition where the inner lining of the uterus breaks into the muscular lining, uterine wall, leading to severe menstrual cramps and feeling of bloatedness during menstruation. This condition can occur across your whole uterine lining or then at a localized spot. Adenomyosis as defined in an Urdu based dictionary is as follows: 'ایڈینومائیوسیس ایک ایسی طبی حالت ہے کہ جس میں یوٹرس کے اندر کے ٹشو اس کی عضلاتی دیواروں میں چلے جاتے ہیں۔ اس کی وجہ سے زیادہ ماہواری آنے کی شکایات ہو سکتی ہیں۔ اس کے علاوہ ہیٹ کے نچلے حصے کا درد اور ایام سے پہلے بلوٹنگ کی علامات بھی اسی وجہ سے ہو سکتی ہیں'. It is believed that adenomyosis occurs most commonly in middle-aged women and has to do with certain hormones triggering this condition. It may also occur after some surgical procedure, for example, removal of fibroids in the uterine wall. As in the case of uterine walls, adenomyosis can also happen in gallbladder. This involves the thickening of the wall of the gallbladder due to cholesterol deposition forming polyps (abnormal tissue growth) resulting in hypertrophy (thickening of the muscular wall).

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Types of Adenomyosis

You may or may not experience any symptoms associated with adenomyosis. However, if you do, they are as follows:

  • Heavy menstrual bleeding
  • Feeling of bloatedness and abdominal pressure
  • Severe menstrual cramps
  • Longer menstrual cycles than usual
  • Lower back pain

Causes of Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis can be classified into three main types based on the regions of the uterine wall affected.

  • Focal adenomyosis: When one side of the uterine wall is invaded.
  • Adenomyoma: More extensive compared to focal adenomyosis and involves the formation of uterine mass.
  • Diffuse adenomyosis: It extends all across the uterine lining.
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Risk Factors of Adenomyosis

The exact cause behind adenomyosis remains unclear. So far research has indicated that endometrial cells somehow migrate and invade the uterine lining leading to this condition. Another states that the uterine lining develops into endometrial cells. Other possible causes might have to do with:

  • Hormonal imbalance of estrogen, progesterone or follicle-stimulating hormone
  • Possible stem cell origins: Stem cells invading the uterine lining leading to adenomyosis
  • Inflammation of the uterine wall after childbirth might break the uterine lining boundary leading to adenomyosis

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Prevention

Infertility is common amongst people having adenomyosis as the muscular wall of the uterus builds up which then eventually blocks the fallopian tubes. Fallopian tubes are tubes within which the sperm fertilizes the egg. Therefore, decreasing the likelihood of pregnancy and chances of fertility.

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Treatment of Adenomyosis | When to Consult a Doctor

If you feel you have any of the above mentioned symptoms for adenomyosis, it is advisable to consult a gynecologist who can carry out a medical evaluation to confirm the diagnosis.

  • A pelvic exam to determine whether the uterus has enlarged or swollen.
  • An ultrasound to closely see the uterine lining and check for any unusual appearance.
  • An MRI to confirm diagnosis of adenomyosis as this scanning technique gives higher resolution images.

Doctors to treat Adenomyosis

Last updated on Friday 21/10/2022

Doctor

Dr. Farah Karim

Gynecologist | MBBS, MCPS, FCPS

Royal Institute Of Medicine & Surgery (Rims) HospitalRs 1500

4

Today’s Slots

99%

Satisfaction Rate

31

Years

Highly Recommended

Doctor

Dr. Sadia Ahmad

Obstetrician, Gynecologist | MBBS, FCPS, CMT, MS

Doctors HospitalRs 2500

4

Today’s Slots

99%

Satisfaction Rate

20

Years

Highly Recommended

Doctor

Prof. Dr. Alia Bashir

Gynecologist | FCPS, MCPS, MHPE, MBBS, DGO

Doctors HospitalRs 3000

6

Today’s Slots

97%

Satisfaction Rate

33

Years

Satisfied with Dr. treatment.

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