Dental Caries

Overview of Dental Caries

Dental Caries Meaning in Urdu

اس بیماری کی کا شکار دنیا کی عام بیماریوں میں ہوتا ہے جو دنیا بھر میں کروڑوں لوگوں کو متاثر کرتی ہے۔ دانتوں کی یہ بیماری مجموعی صحت کو بھی متاثر کرتی ہے، جب کہ اس کی وجہ سے تکلیف اور انفیکشن کا بھی سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے۔ اس تکلیف اور انفیکشن کی وجہ سے دانت نکالنے کی ضرورت بھی پڑ سکتی ہے تا کہ مزید طبی مسائل سے بچا جا سکے۔ اس بیماری کی بنیادی وجہ بیکٹیریا ہوتے ہیں جو کہ منہ میں موجود ہوتے ہیں۔

Dental caries (دانتوں کا سڑنا) also refer to tooth decay or cavities is one of the most common dental problem diagnosed. Consumption of different foods results in bacteria breaking down on your teeth that produce enamel dissolving acids. As a result tooth cavities or dental caries develop over time.

However, it is a preventable condition. The tooth caries is often extracted when it causes too much pain.


It is the most widespread non-communicable disease (NCD). According to the 2015 Global Burden of Disease Study, 2.3 billion people got affected by decay of permanent teeth and 560 million children from deciduous teeth.

Signs and Symptoms of Dental Caries

The signs or symptoms of the dental carries vary from mild to severe as it depends on the location and extent. At the early stage of the tooth cavity, there will be no symptoms.

When the decay gets larger, you may experience the following signs and symptoms:

  • Toothache; Pain without any apparent cause
  • Pain while chewing the food
  • Visible holes or pits in teeth
  • Tooth sensitivity
  • Black, brown, and white staining on the tooth surface
  • Pain ranges from mild to sharp after drinking or eating hot, cold, or sweet.

Types of Dental Caries

Causes of Dental Caries

There are two specific areas of teeth where dental caries develop.

Occlusal Caries: It forms on the topmost surface of the tooth where the food gets exposed directly.

Interproximal Caries: It forms between the teeth.

These are the main locations of your teeth where bacteria decompose and increase the risk of poor oral hygiene. When someone does not clean the teeth properly, it allows bacteria to digest the left sugar from the food in the mouth. It results in the conversion of this leftover sugar into acids.

The tooth enamel is at risk of tiny holes formation due to strong acids. These acids can demineralize the enamel on your teeth.

Once enamel starts to break down, the tooth becomes prone to lose the ability to strengthen the phosphate and calcium structures of the teeth. It takes time for acid penetration to your tooth that destroys it from both inside and outside.


Risk Factors of Dental Caries

There is no age limit as everyone is at risk of dental caries. The most common age group who are at risk of dental caries are children and adolescents.

Countries, where sugars consumption is high, are more likely to have affected populations from dental problems. Bacterium metabolism of sugars produces acid production that leads to tooth loss.

Some common risk factors are:

Certain Foods and Drinks: Some foods stay in your mouth and stick with your teeth for a long time. These foods include honey, sugar, cake, bakery food, chips, etc.

Bedtime Milk: When children or even adults drink milk just before bedtime, it increases the risk of dental caries.

Less Fluoride: Fluoride is a naturally occurring mineral that protects teeth from cavities and any damage. A toothpaste may provide fluoride to your mouth and clean the sticky substances.

Dry Mouth: Lack of saliva results in a dry mouth that does not wash away the food particles and plaque from your teeth.

Heartburn: Some health conditions like heartburn or GERD causes stomach acid to flow back into your mouth.

Dental Filling: After years of dental filling, it is a normal process of its breakdown. It allows plaque buildup more easily.

Dental Caries Complications

Dental caries is considered a normal condition that often is not taken seriously. Untreated tooth decay or dental caries can lead to long-lasting complications, which include:

  • Pus around tooth
  • Chewing issues
  • Pain
  • Tooth abscess
  • Broken teeth
  • Teeth shifted after tooth loss
  • In severe cases, the following complications can develop:
  • Broken teeth
  • Pain that does not allow eating or affects the quality of life
  • Tooth loss that may affect the smile
  • Weight loss due to poor eating



Good oral hygiene prevents cavities and tooth decay. Some simple prevention tips can help to avoid tooth loss:

  • Use fluoride toothpaste after eating or drinking
  • Regular visits to the dentists
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Do not eat or drink more frequently
  • Eat tooth-friendly foods


A dentist checks the tooth and diagnoses dental caries by the following factors:

  • Using dental instruments to test soft tissues
  • Mouth and teeth examine
  • Queries about pain
  • Asking about sensitivity
  • Dental X-rays to locate the dental caries

Treatment of Dental Caries | When to Consult a Doctor

The prevention tips can prevent the need for treatment. Treatment of dental caries depends on the severity of the tooth situation. Some of the common treatments include:

Crown: A weakened tooth needs a crown to replace the natural crown. It drills away from the affected part and makes a good shape to set the crown. Different materials are used for the crown, such as resin, gold, porcelain, and other materials.

Fluoride Treatment: For early decay formation, fluoride treatment works. It is used to restore the enamel. Dentists use enough fluoride to brush onto teeth.

Fillings: It is also known as restorations, a treatment that helps to stop the further progress of tooth decay formation. Different materials are used for fillings, such as porcelain, colored composite resins, etc.

Root Canals: The decay starts reaching the tooth inside, pulp. For such conditions, root canal treatment is suggested. It repairs and saves an infected tooth that replaces the tooth loss procedure.

Tooth Extraction: Extremely damaged teeth cannot be restored and tooth extraction becomes crucial. Tooth loss may increase the risk of other teeth shifting. But a dental implant can minimize the risk.

Consult a dentist if your situation worsens.