Tumors of Testes

Overview of Tumors of Testes

Tumors of Testes Meaning in Urdu

ٹیسٹیکل کینسر کی پہلی علامت یہ ہوتی ہے کہ اس کی وجہ سے ٹیسٹیکلز پر گلٹی نمودار ہو جاتی ہے۔ جسم کے اس حصے میں کینسر کے سیلز تیزی سے بڑھنا شروع ہو جاتے ہیں اور پھر دوسرے حصوں کو متاثر کرتے ہیں۔ ٹیسٹیکل کینسر کی وجہ سے اس تھیلی میں بھاری پن کا احساس ہوتا ہے جس میں ٹیسٹیکلز موجود ہوتے ہیں اور یہ تھیلی سوزش کا شکار بھی ہو سکتی ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ کچھ افراد کو کمر درد اور پیٹ کے نچلے حصے میں تکلیف کا بھی سامنا کرنا پڑ سکتا ہے۔

A tumor of the testes, also known as a testicular tumor or testicular cancer, is an abnormal growth of cells within the testicles, which are part of the male reproductive system. Testicular tumors can be either benign or malignant, but most testicular tumors are malignant.

Prevalence of Tumor of Testes

Globally, Testicular Cancer is estimated to affect 8000 to 10,000 men every year, with a 1 in 270 chance of developing cancer. However, the survival rate is effective, as high as 95%. 

Signs and Symptoms of Tumors of Testes

The most common symptom of a testicular tumor is a painless lump or swelling in one of the testicles. However, other symptoms may include:

  • A feeling of heaviness or discomfort in the scrotum
  • Pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum
  • Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts
  • Back pain or abdominal pain if cancer has spread to other body parts
  • Fatigue or unexplained weight loss

These symptoms can also happen due to other conditions, such as an infection or injury, and may not necessarily indicate the presence of a testicular tumor.

Types of Tumors of Testes

Several types of tumors can develop in the testes, including:

  • Germ Cell Tumors:

These tumors originate from the cells that produce sperm and are the most common type of testicular cancer. Germ cell tumors are of two types:

    • Seminomas: These tumors grow slowly and are usually confined to the testicle at the time of diagnosis. They are highly treatable, even if they have spread beyond the testicle.

    • Non-seminomas: These tumors grow more quickly than seminomas and are generally more aggressive. They have several subtypes, including embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma.

  • Stromal Tumors:

These tumors develop in the supporting tissues of the testicle and are rare. They can be further divided into two types:

    • Leydig cell tumors: These tumors develop in the cells that produce testosterone and are generally benign.

    • Sertoli cell tumors: These tumors develop in the cells that support the development of sperm and can be either benign or malignant.

It is important to note that many testicular tumors are malignant and require prompt medical attention. Early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and increase the chances of a full recovery.

Causes of Tumors of Testes

The exact causes of testicular tumors are not fully understood, but certain risk factors have been identified, including:

  • Age: Testicular cancer is most commonly diagnosed in young and middle-aged men, between the ages of 15 and 44.
  • Undescended testicle: Men born with one or both testicles that did not descend into the scrotum have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer.
  • Family history: Men with a family history of testicular cancer have an increased risk of developing the disease.
  • Abnormal testicular development: Men with certain conditions that affect testicular development, such as Klinefelter syndrome, have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer.
  • Previous testicular cancer: Men who have had testicular cancer in one testicle are at increased risk of developing cancer in the other testicle.
  • Race/ethnicity: Testicular cancer is more common in white men than in men of other races or ethnicities.

Having one or more risk factors does not necessarily mean a person will develop testicular cancer. Most men with these risk factors do not develop the disease, and many men with testicular cancer do not have any known risk factors.


Risk Factors of Tumors of Testes

Tumors of the testes have the same risk factors as that of causes. It can lead to various health issues as well such as:

Health Complications

If left untreated, a tumor of the testes can spread to other parts of the body and cause several complications, including:

  • Spread of cancer: If the cancerous cells spread beyond the testicles, they can travel through the lymphatic system or bloodstream and form tumors in other organs, such as the lungs, liver, bones, or brain.
  • Infertility: Treatment for testicular cancer can sometimes damage the remaining testicle and affect a man's ability to produce sperm.
  • Hormone imbalances: Some types of testicular cancer can disrupt the production of testosterone and other hormones, leading to many symptoms, including fatigue, reduced sex drive, and muscle weakness.
  • Psychological effects: A cancer diagnosis can cause significant emotional distress, including anxiety, depression, and fear of recurrence.
  • Side effects of treatment: Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy can cause a range of side effects, such as fatigue, nausea, hair loss, and increased risk of infection.

It's important to note that not all men with testicular cancer will experience these complications, and many are manageable with appropriate medical care. With prompt diagnosis and treatment, the outlook for testicular cancer is generally favorable, and most men can live long, healthy lives after treatment.



There are no specific ways to prevent the development of testicular tumors, but there are some steps men can take to reduce their risk of developing the disease or catching it early when it is most treatable. These include:

  • Conduct regular testicular self-exams: Regularly examining the testicles for lumps, swelling, or changes in size can help detect testicular tumors early, when they are most treatable.
  • Seek prompt medical attention for any changes: If you notice any changes in the size, shape, or texture of your testicles, or experience pain or discomfort in the scrotum, see a doctor right away.
  • Get routine medical checkups: Regular checkups with a doctor or urologist can help detect testicular cancer early or identify other conditions that may increase your risk.
  • Know your family history: Men with a family history of testicular cancer may have an increased risk of developing the disease and should talk to their doctor about appropriate screening and risk reduction strategies.
  • Address undescended testicles: If born with an undescended testicle, consulting a doctor about monitoring testicular health, and addressing underlying issues is necessary. 

It's important to remember that testicular cancer is rare, and most men with risk factors do not develop the sickness. However, these steps can help you stay informed and take control of your testicular health.



Testicular tumor diagnosis usually involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests, and laboratory tests. The following are the diagnostic methods used for testicular tumors:

  • Physical Exam: Your doctor will perform a physical examination of your testicles, scrotum, and abdomen to check for lumps, swelling, or other abnormalities.
  • Ultrasound: An ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the testicles and scrotum. This test can help your doctor determine whether a mass is a solid tumor or a fluid-filled cyst.
  • Blood Tests: Blood tests can help detect specific proteins and markers often associated with testicular cancer.
  • Biopsy: In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis of testicular cancer. It involves removing a small tissue sample from the testicle and examining it under a microscope.
  • CT Scan or MRI: If your doctor suspects that cancer has spread beyond the testicle, they may order a CT scan or MRI to look for tumors in other body parts.

It's important to remember that not all lumps or abnormalities in the testicles are cancerous, and many other conditions can cause similar symptoms. If you have concerns about testicular health, consult a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Treatment of Tumors of Testes | When to Consult a Doctor

The treatment of testicular tumors depends on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, the patient's overall health, and personal preferences. The most common treatment options for testicular tumors include:

  • Surgery: Surgery is usually the first step in treating testicular tumors. The doctor removes the affected testicle through a procedure known as radical inguinal orchiectomy. In some cases, nearby lymph nodes may also be removed.
  • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells. It is typically used after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. It may be used before or after surgery or as the primary treatment for advanced or metastatic testicular cancer.
  • Surveillance: Some men with early-stage testicular tumors are manageable with close monitoring and regular imaging tests to watch for any changes in the tumor.

The treatment plan will be tailored to each case and may involve a combination of these approaches. The urologist will work with you to determine the most appropriate treatment based on your circumstances. It's important to remember that cancer of testes is highly treatable, and most men with the disease can recover fully with timely and appropriate care.