Attention valued customers! Orders placed on or after June 13th will be delivered after Eid in cities outside Lahore.

Uro Gynae Cancer

Overview of Uro Gynae Cancer

Uro Gynae Cancer is a type of cancer that affects the female reproductive system and urinary tract. Specifically, it includes cancers of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, vulva, bladder, ureters, and kidneys.

Prevalence of Uro Gynae Cancer

The prevalence of uro-gynecologic cancer varies depending on the specific type of cancer. Here are some estimated prevalence rates for each type:

  • Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is the most common type of Uro Gynae cancer, accounting for approximately 7.5% of all female cancer cases worldwide. 
  • Ovarian Cancer: Ovarian cancer is less common than cervical cancer but is more deadly. According to the American Cancer Society, there were an estimated 21,410 new cases of ovarian cancer in 2021, and approximately 13,770 women will die from the disease.
  • Uterine Cancer: Uterine cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, with an estimated 382,000 new cases in 2018. 
  • Vulvar cancer: Vulvar cancer is a rare type of uro-gynecologic cancer, accounting for less than 1% of all female cancers. According to the American Cancer Society, there were an estimated 6,540 new cases of vulvar cancer in 2021.
  • Vaginal cancer: Vaginal cancer is also a rare type of uro-gynecologic cancer, accounting for less than 1% of all female cancers. 

It's important to note that these prevalence rates may vary depending on the region or country, and other demographic and lifestyle factors.

Signs and Symptoms of Uro Gynae Cancer

Uro-gynae cancer symptoms can vary depending on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. Some common symptoms of uro-gynecologic cancers may include:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge
  • Pain or discomfort during sex
  • Pain or discomfort in the pelvic area
  • Pain or discomfort while urinating
  • Frequent urination or the sudden urge to urinate
  • Blood in the urine
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Changes in bowel habits
  • Enlarged lymph nodes in the groin or neck

If a woman experiences these symptoms, she should talk to her gynecologist to determine the underlying cause and whether further testing or evaluation is needed. Early detection and treatment can improve the chances of a good outcome for women with uro-gynecologic cancers.

Types of Uro Gynae Cancer

Several types of Uro Gynae cancers affect the female reproductive system and urinary tract. These include:

  • Ovarian Cancer: This is cancer that starts in the ovaries, which are the organs that produce eggs.
  • Fallopian Tube Cancer: This is rare cancer that starts in the fallopian tubes, which are the tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus.
  • Uterine Cancer: Also known as endometrial cancer, this is cancer that starts in the lining of the uterus.
  • Cervical Cancer: This cancer starts in the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina.
  • Vaginal Cancer: This cancer starts in the vagina which is the canal that connects the uterus to the outside of the body.
  • Vulvar Cancer: This is cancer that starts in the vulva, which is the external female genital area.
  • Bladder Cancer: This is cancer that starts in the bladder, which is the organ that stores urine.
  • Ureteral Cancer: This is cancer that starts in the ureters, which are the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder.
  • Renal Pelvis Cancer: This is cancer that starts in the renal pelvis, which is the area of the kidney where urine collects before it moves to the bladder.

It's important to note that while these types of cancer are all considered uro-gynecologic cancers, they have different causes, risk factors, and treatment approaches.

Causes of Uro Gynae Cancer

The exact causes of uro-gynecologic cancers are not fully understood, but several factors may increase a woman's risk of developing these types of cancers. These risk factors include:

  • Age: As women get older, their risk of developing Uro-gynae cancers increases.
  • Family history: Women with a family history of uro-gynecologic cancers, especially ovarian and breast cancer, may have a higher risk of developing these types of cancers.
  • Genetic mutations: Inherited genetic mutations such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations can increase a woman's risk of developing uro-gynae cancers.
  • Hormonal factors: Hormonal imbalances, such as those seen in women who have never been pregnant, have late menopause, or have used hormone replacement therapy, can increase the risk of some uro-gynecologic cancers.
  • Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as those found in cigarette smoke, may increase the risk of developing bladder cancer.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: HPV infection is a risk factor for cervical and vaginal cancer.
  • Other medical conditions: Women with certain medical conditions, such as endometriosis, may have an increased risk of developing uro-gynecologic cancers.

It's important to note that having one or more risk factors does not mean a woman will develop uro-gynecologic cancer. However, women with risk factors may need to be more vigilant about screening and monitoring for these types of cancers.

Complications

Uro-gynecologic cancers can cause several complications, both as a result of cancer itself and as a result of the treatments used to manage the disease. Some potential complications of uro-gynecologic cancer may include:

  • Spread of cancer: Uro-gynecologic cancers can spread to other body parts, leading to more advanced and difficult-to-treat cancer.
  • Infertility: Some treatments for uro-gynecologic cancers, such as surgery or radiation therapy, can damage the reproductive organs and cause infertility.
  • Lymphedema: Lymph node removal during surgery or radiation therapy can cause lymphedema. It is a buildup of fluid that causes swelling in the arms or legs.
  • Bladder or bowel dysfunction: Depending on the location of cancer, treatment may damage the bladder or bowel and cause incontinence, difficulty emptying the bladder, or constipation.
  • Sexual dysfunction: Treatment for uro-gynecologic cancer may cause sexual dysfunction, including pain during intercourse or decreased libido.
  • Psychological distress: A diagnosis of uro-gynecologic cancer can be emotionally and psychologically challenging, and treatment can cause anxiety, depression, and other mental health issues.
  • Side effects of treatment: Treatment for uro-gynecologic cancer, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, can cause side effects, including fatigue, nausea, hair loss, and increased risk of infection.

Women with uro-gynae cancer should work closely with their healthcare team to manage potential complications and address any concerns or questions about their care.

Happniness

Risk Factors of Uro Gynae Cancer

Happniness

Prevention

While there is no guaranteed way to prevent uro-gynecologic cancers, there are several steps women can take to reduce their risk:

  • Get regular cancer screenings: Women should follow the recommended screening guidelines for cervical, ovarian, and other uro-gynecologic cancers. These screenings can help detect cancer early when it's most treatable.
  • Practice safe sex: Using condoms during sexual activity and limiting the number of sexual partners can help reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections that can lead to uro-gynecologic cancers.
  • Quit smoking: Smoking is a risk factor for bladder and other uro-gynecologic cancers. Quitting smoking can help reduce the risk of these cancers.
  • Maintain a healthy weight: Being overweight or obese can increase the risk of several types of uro-gynecologic cancers. Eating a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity can help maintain a healthy weight and reduce the risk of these cancers.
  • Use caution with hormone therapy: Long-term use of hormone replacement therapy may increase the risk of certain uro-gynecologic cancers. Women should talk to their healthcare provider about the risks and benefits of hormone therapy and use it only when necessary.
  • Be aware of family history: Women with a family history of uro-gynecologic cancers may have an increased risk of developing these cancers. If there is a family history, women may need to get screened more frequently or earlier than recommended.

It's important to note that these steps can help reduce the risk of uro-gynecologic cancers, but they do not guarantee prevention. Women should also stay informed about the latest research and recommendations about uro-gynecologic cancers and talk to their healthcare provider about any concerns or questions.

Happniness

Diagnosis

The uro-gynae cancer diagnosis involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests, and laboratory tests. The specific diagnostic tests used may vary depending on the type of cancer suspected. Some diagnostic tests for uro-gynecologic cancers may include:

  • Pelvic Exam: A physical examination of the pelvic area may check for any abnormalities or signs of cancer.
  • Pap Test: A Pap test or cervical smear may check for abnormal cells in the cervix, which can be a sign of cervical cancer.
  • Biopsy: A biopsy involves taking a small tissue sample from the suspected cancerous area and examining it under a microscope to determine if it is cancerous.
  • Imaging Tests: Imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, MRI, or PET scan may look for tumors or other abnormalities in the pelvic area or other body parts.
  • Blood Tests: Blood tests may check for certain markers or substances that may indicate the presence of cancer.
  • Urine Tests: Urine tests may check for blood, proteins, or other substances that may indicate the presence of cancer in the bladder or other urinary tract organs.

Once a diagnosis of uro-gynecologic cancer is made, additional tests may be performed to determine the stage and extent of cancer and to help guide treatment decisions.

Treatment of Uro Gynae Cancer | When to Consult a Doctor

The uro-gynae cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer and the woman's overall health and preferences. Treatment may involve surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy. Some specific treatment options for uro-gynecologic cancer may include:

  • Surgery: Surgery may remove the cancerous tissue and nearby lymph nodes or organs if necessary. In some cases, minimally invasive or robotic surgery may be an option.
  • Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. It may be used alone or in combination with surgery or chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy uses drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. It may be given orally or intravenously and used alone or in combination with other treatments.
  • Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy uses drugs specifically targeting cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy cells.
  • Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy uses drugs to stimulate the body's immune system to attack and kill cancer cells.
  • Hormone therapy: Hormone therapy may be used for some types of uro-gynecologic cancer sensitive to hormones, such as certain types of ovarian cancer.

The specific treatment plan for uro-gynecologic cancer will depend on several factors, and treatment may be tailored to the woman's needs and preferences. Women with uro-gynecologic cancer should work closely with their gynecologists to develop a treatment plan right for them.