Bladder Dysfunction

Overview of Bladder Dysfunction

Bladder Dysfunction Meaning in Urdu

اس بیماری کی وجہ سے مثانے کی پیشاب روکنے اور خارج کرنے کی صلاحیت متاثر ہوتی ہے۔ کئی وجوہات کی بنا پر اس بیماری کے خطرات میں اضافہ ہو سکتا ہے۔ مثانے کی بے چینی، پیشاب کی نالی کا بند ہو جانا، جسم کے نچلے کی سرجری، ادویات کے مضرِ صحت اثرات، پیشاب کی نالی کا انفیکشن، اور مثانے کے پٹھوں کی کمزوری ان وجوہات میں شامل ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ ذیابیطس، تمباکو نوشی، مینوپاز، موٹاپے، ریڑھ کی ہڈی کی سرجری، اور دائمی قبض کی وجہ سے بھی اس بیماری کے خطرات میں اضافہ ہو سکتا ہے۔

Bladder dysfunction, also known as lower urinary tract dysfunction, is a condition that affects the ability of the bladder to properly store or empty urine. It is a common condition that affects people of all ages, although it is more common in older adults.


According to the Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences the prevalence of bladder dysfunction in Pakistan is marked by 27.4% in the general population. The main triggers reported for bladder dysfunction were body mass index, diabetes mellitus, age, and family history. 

Signs and Symptoms of Bladder Dysfunction

The symptoms of bladder dysfunction can vary depending on the type of dysfunction but may include:

  • Inability to control the flow of urine
  • Frequent urination
  • Sudden urges to urinate
  • A nagging feeling of fully emptying the bladder 
  • Pain or discomfort while urinating
  • Incomplete emptying of the bladder
  • Urinary tract infections
  • See slight blood in the urine 

Types of Bladder Dysfunction

There are several types of bladder dysfunction, including:

  • Urinary incontinence: This is the involuntary leakage of urine. It can be caused by weak pelvic muscles, an overactive bladder, or nerve damage.

  • Urinary retention: This is the inability to empty the bladder. It can be caused by an obstruction in the urinary tract, weak bladder muscles, or nerve damage.

  • Overactive bladder: This is a condition where the bladder muscles contract involuntarily, causing a sudden urge to urinate.

  • Interstitial cystitis: This is a chronic condition that causes bladder pain and discomfort.

Causes of Bladder Dysfunction

Bladder dysfunction can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

  • Natural aging process: as we age, our muscles weaken, affecting the voluntary muscles to become weak first

  • Overweight and obesity: people who have a high body mass index (obesity) have reported more loose bladder control

  • Diabetes: diabetes can directly affect the functions of the kidney if not treated in a timely manner 

  • Tough pregnancy: in some cases, trauma birth can result in a loose vagina that can affect bladder control 

  • Pelvic organ prolapse: urine incontinence and poor bladder control are the first side effects of loose pelvic muscles

  • Menopause: this is most common in women, but as a woman ages and has fewer menstrual cycles, she becomes more prone to loose pelvic muscles and pelvic control

  • Neurological conditions: such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or spinal cord injury, can affect the nerves that control the bladder.

  • Hormonal changes: During menopause, women experience a decrease in estrogen, which can lead to bladder weakness.

  • Bladder obstruction: Enlarged prostate, bladder stones, or tumors can block the flow of urine and cause bladder dysfunction.

  • Weak pelvic muscles: Weak pelvic muscles can lead to bladder dysfunction.


Risk Factors of Bladder Dysfunction

Some common risk factors that can lead to bladder dysfunction are; 

  • Heavy metal poisoning 
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Alzheimer's 
  • Vaginal wear and tear after the birth process
  • Stroke 
  • Anxiety or chronic stress 
  • Smoking and drinking 
  • Poor eating habits especially a lot of sugary products 
  • Anu spinal cord injury 
  • Certain medicines 
  • Early diabetes 

Bladder dysfunction can be reversed if it is because of poor lifestyle habits or due to pre-diabetes. Usually if an individual experiences temporary incontinence, then it is mainly due to unhealthy eating and drinking. 



To prevent bladder dysfunction, it is important to maintain good bladder health. This includes drinking plenty of water, avoiding bladder irritants such as caffeine and alcohol, and practicing good hygiene to prevent urinary tract infections.

Pelvic floor exercises, such as Kegels, can also help strengthen the muscles that control the bladder and prevent bladder dysfunction.



Diagnosis of bladder dysfunction usually involves a physical exam, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as urine analysis, ultrasound, or cystoscopy. Some specific tests done to identify bladder dysfunction are; 

  • Bladder capacity Test - This test helps track the amount of urine your bladder can comfortably hold 
  • Bladder Stress Test - will determine urine leaks whenever the person coughs 
  • Residual Urine Test - check the amount levels of your urine after you urinate 
  • Cystoscopy - using a small invasive tube with a camera that helps look inside your urethra and bladder region 
  • Urodynamics - checks for bladder pressure and flow 
  • Urine culture - check urine for any developing infection, kidney stones, or other kidney complications 

Treatment of Bladder Dysfunction | When to Consult a Doctor

Bladder dysfunction is a common condition that can cause a range of symptoms, including urinary incontinence, urinary retention, and overactive bladder. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological conditions, hormonal changes, and bladder obstruction. Treatment for bladder dysfunction depends on the underlying cause of the dysfunction. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as reducing caffeine and alcohol intake, practicing pelvic floor exercises, and bladder training can help improve bladder function.

Medications such as anticholinergics, alpha-blockers, and muscle relaxants can also be prescribed to help treat bladder dysfunction. In severe cases, surgery may be required to correct the underlying problem. Medications: Certain medications, such as diuretics, sedatives, and antihistamines, can cause bladder dysfunction.

In case of any concerns or queries, you can always reach out to a certified urologist for a customized treatment plan.