Overview of Neoplasm

Neoplasm Meaning in Urdu

اس بیماری کی وجہ سے خلیات کا سائز غیر ضروری طور پر بڑھنے لگتا ہے۔ خلیات کے بڑھے ہوئے سائز کو ٹیومر بھی کہا جاتا ہے۔ اس بیماری کی بنیادی وجوہات کیا ہیں، یہ ابھی تک  معلوم نہیں ہو سکا ہے۔ تاہم کچھ عناصر جیسا کہ عمر میں اضافہ، سگریٹ نوشی، الکوحل کا استعمال، موٹاپہ، اور وائرسز کی وجہ سے یہ بیماری لاحق ہو سکتی ہے۔ یہ بیماری خون کی کمی، سانس لینے میں مشکلات، پیٹ درد، دائمی تھکاوٹ، بھوک کی کمی، اسہال، اور بخار جیسی علامات کا باعث بن سکتی ہے، تاہم کچھ افراد میں اس بیماری کی علامات ظاہر نہیں ہوتیں۔


Skin neoplasm refers to the abnormal growth of skin cells. Although the term "neoplasm" is occasionally used synonymously with "cancer," neoplasms can also be noncancerous. 

Your skin's cells multiply and grow as required. They die when you no longer need them. Cells occasionally continue to develop even if they shouldn't. This results in Neoplasm.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasm

Neoplasms can have different symptoms depending on their type, location, and stage of development. Some common symptoms that may indicate the presence of a neoplasm include:

  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue or weakness
  • Persistent pain in a particular area
  • Swelling or lumps in the body
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • Persistent cough or hoarseness
  • Abnormal bleeding or discharge
  • Changes in the appearance of moles or other skin lesions
  • Recurring infections

It's important to note that these symptoms can be caused by other conditions as well, and the presence of one or more of these symptoms does not necessarily indicate the presence of neoplasm. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms or have concerns about your health, it's important to consult a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment.

Types of Neoplasm

Neoplasms, also known as tumors, can be classified into two main types: benign and malignant.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other body parts. They grow slowly, do not cause significant harm, and are usually removed by surgery if they cause discomfort or cosmetic concerns.

Malignant neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other body parts through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They grow rapidly, can cause significant harm, and require more aggressive treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery.

Malignant neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on the type of tissue or cell where they originate. Some common types of malignant neoplasms include:

  1. Carcinomas - tumors that originate from epithelial cells, which are cells that form the lining of organs and tissues. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer
  2. Sarcomas - tumors that originate from connective tissue, such as bone, muscle, or cartilage. Examples include osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma.
  3. Lymphomas - tumors that originate from lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell. Examples include Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  4. Leukemias - tumors that originate from blood-forming cells in the bone marrow or lymphatic system. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
  5. Central Nervous System Tumors - tumors that originate from the brain or spinal cord. Examples include gliomas and meningiomas.

It's important to note that not all neoplasms are malignant or cancerous and that early detection and treatment can improve the outcome for those diagnosed with cancer.

Causes of Neoplasm

Neoplasm can have various causes, some of which are:

  • Genetic mutations: Neoplasms can occur due to genetic mutations or alterations in the DNA. These mutations can be inherited or acquired throughout life due to exposure to environmental factors.
  • Exposure to carcinogens: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as chemicals, radiation, viruses, and other agents, can damage DNA and increase the risk of developing neoplasms.
  • Age: As we age, the likelihood of developing neoplasms increases. It is because our cells may accumulate mutations over time.
  • Immunodeficiency: Individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, are at a higher risk of developing neoplasms.
  • Lifestyle factors: Certain lifestyle factors, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of exercise, and an unhealthy diet, can increase the risk of developing neoplasms.

Risk Factors of Neoplasm

Several risk factors may increase an individual's likelihood of developing neoplasms (tumors), including:

  • Age: As mentioned earlier, the risk of developing neoplasms increases with age.
  • Genetics: Certain genetic mutations and hereditary conditions can increase the risk of developing neoplasms.
  • Lifestyle factors: Certain lifestyle factors, such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, lack of physical activity, unhealthy diet, and exposure to carcinogens, can increase the risk of developing neoplasms.
  • Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental factors, such as radiation, pollution, and chemicals, can increase the risk of developing neoplasms.
  • Medical history: Previous history of cancer or certain medical conditions, such as chronic inflammation, can increase the risk of developing neoplasms.
  • Immune system deficiencies: People with weakened immune systems due to medical conditions or certain treatments, such as chemotherapy or organ transplant, are at a higher risk of developing neoplasms.
  • Hormonal factors: Hormonal factors can increase the risk of certain types of neoplasms, such as breast cancer.

It is important to note that having one or more of these risk factors does not necessarily mean that an individual will develop neoplasms, and many people who develop neoplasms do not have any known risk factors. However, it is essential to be aware of these risk factors and to take steps to reduce their impact whenever possible.

Neoplasm Complications:

Neoplasms can cause various complications depending on the type and location of the tumor. Some of the common complications of neoplasms are:

  • Pain: Tumors can cause pain in the affected area, either due to compression of nearby tissues or nerve involvement.
  • Obstruction: Tumors can obstruct normal bodily functions, such as breathing or digestion, by compressing or invading nearby organs.
  • Bleeding: Tumors can cause bleeding by eroding nearby blood vessels or producing abnormal blood vessels within the tumor itself.
  • Infection: Tumors can cause infections by compromising the body's immune system or by providing a site for bacterial or fungal growth.
  • Hormonal imbalances: Some tumors produce hormones or hormone-like substances that can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of hormone involved.
  • Spread to other organs: Tumors can metastasize, or spread, to other organs, which can cause further complications and make treatment more difficult.
  • Paraneoplastic syndromes: Some tumors can produce substances that cause symptoms in other parts of the body, such as neurological or dermatological symptoms.
  • Psychological impact: The diagnosis of a neoplasm and the subsequent treatment can have a significant psychological impact on the patient, as well as their family and friends.

It is important to note that not all neoplasms cause complications, and many can be successfully treated with early detection and appropriate treatment.



While there is no guaranteed way to prevent neoplasms, there are several things you can do to reduce your risk of developing them:

  • Maintain a healthy diet: Eating a healthy diet that is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins can help reduce your risk of developing neoplasms.
  • Exercise regularly: Regular physical activity can help reduce your risk of developing neoplasms, as well as other chronic diseases.
  • Avoid tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption: Tobacco use and excessive alcohol consumption are linked to an increased risk of developing neoplasms.
  • Protect your skin from the sun: Exposure to UV radiation from the sun or tanning beds can increase your risk of developing skin neoplasms, so it's important to protect your skin by wearing protective clothing and using sunscreen.
  • Get vaccinated: Certain vaccines, such as the HPV vaccine, can help reduce your risk of developing neoplasms.
  • Practice safe Intercourse: Practicing safe intercourse can help reduce your risk of developing certain neoplasms, such as cervical neoplasms.
  • Get regular check-ups: Regular check-ups and screenings can help detect neoplasms early when they are most treatable.


Neoplasm, commonly known as a tumor, can be diagnosed through various methods. The most common methods include:

  • Physical examination: A physician may perform a physical examination to identify any lumps, masses, or other abnormal growths.
  • Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds can help identify the location and size of a neoplasm.
  • Biopsy: A biopsy involves taking a tissue sample from the affected area and examining it under a microscope to determine if it is cancerous or non-cancerous.
  • Blood tests: Certain blood tests can detect tumor markers which are substances produced by cancer cells.

Once a diagnosis of neoplasm is made, further testing may be necessary to determine the stage and extent of cancer. This helps in planning the appropriate treatment for the patient.

Treatment of Neoplasm | When to Consult a Doctor

The treatment of neoplasms (abnormal growth of cells that can develop into cancerous or non-cancerous tumors) depends on various factors such as the type, stage, location, and overall health of the patient. Here are some treatment options for neoplasms:

  • Surgery: This is the primary treatment for many neoplasms. The surgeon removes the tumor and any surrounding tissue that may be affected.
  • Radiation therapy: High-energy radiation is used to kill cancer cells or prevent them from growing. This therapy can be given before or after surgery or as the primary treatment for certain types of cancer.
  • Chemotherapy: This involves the use of drugs to kill cancer cells or slow their growth. Chemotherapy can be given orally, through injection, or an IV.
  • Immunotherapy: This is a type of treatment that helps the body's immune system to fight cancer. It can be used alone or in combination with other treatments.
  • Targeted therapy: This type of therapy uses drugs that target specific genes or proteins that are involved in the growth and spread of cancer cells.
  • Hormone therapy: This is a treatment type that blocks the effects of hormones that may promote the growth of certain types of cancer.
  • Stem cell transplant: This involves high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells, followed by the transplantation of healthy stem cells to replace the damaged bone marrow.

A Dermatologist proposes treatment choices based on the type of cancer, its stage, and the patient's overall health.